Necati Cumalı’nın “Gençlik Berberi” Adlı Öyküsünde Bölgeselci Eğilimler

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Selçuk Üniversitesi

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19. yüzyılın sonlarında ve 20. yüzyılın başlarında gelişen ve dünya edebiyatını etkilemiş önemli bir edebi eğilim olan bölgecilik veya bölgeselcilik, bir bölgenin karakterleri, diyalektleri, gelenekleri, tarihi ve topografyası gibi belirli özelliklerine odaklanan roman veya şiirlerde belirginleşir. Özellikle kurgusal türlerde olay örgüsü, şahıslar, zaman, mekân gibi anlatı bileşenleri veya dil ve üslup gibi özellikler üzerinde bölgeci tavrın izlerini görmek mümkündür. Bu çalışmada ise Dona Campbell’in Amerikan bölgesel edebiyatı için belirlediği zaman, mekân, karakterler, anlatıcı ve olay örgüsü gibi anlatı bileşenlerinde gözlemlenen kurgusal karakteristiklerden hareketle Türk edebiyatında bölgeselci tavrın izleri ortaya konulmaya çalışılmıştır. Bu karakteristiklerin Necati Cumalı’nın Kente İnen Kaplanlar adlı kitabında yer alan “Gençlik Berberi” adlı öyküsü örneğinde ne oranda karşılık bulduğu çalışmanın amacını oluşturmaktadır. Öyküde bu tesir, sadece edebi coğrafya olarak belli bir bölgenin mekân olarak tercih edilmesi suretiyle değil, şahıs kadrosu, olay örgüsü ve dil ve üslup düzleminde de belli mahalli ögelerin öne çıkarılması şeklinde de görülür.
Zoning which affected the world literature is an important movement. This movement which has developed in the beginning of 19th and 20th centuries can be defined as interest with subcolours of national and regional as the relationships with political and social manners which region carries in literature. Zoning or regionalism have been becoming clear a movement in both drawing and literature, mostly in American culture. This written method which developed to put forward a humorous attitude mostly in the parts of the southwest and the east of States from American Civil War to the end of 19th century, predominated on American literature even shortly. Zoning or regionalism in literature means a novel or poem which uses local colors or focuses on the certain specialties of a region as its characters, dialects, customs, history and topography. The authors who allows for regional specialties in their works, carries the dialectic specialities, culture and customs of a region to their works. Especially, it is possible to see the narration components as story line, people, time and location on the fictional kinds and the marks of the regional manners on the specialties as dialect and style. The marks of the regional manner in Turkish literature tried to present in this work availing the fictional specialities which Donna Campell has specified for American regional literature. In according to Donna Campell, American regional literature has characteristics which affect the narration components as time, location, characters, narrator and story line. The main effect of regionalist narration is seen on story line. ‘The local colours’ of regionalist literature turns around main entrique factor, the region, the society or rituals which the author portrayed in his strong stories. The samples which were written by the regionalist woman authors have included the narration more than showing has predominated in the samples. Because of this, it doesn’t mostly happen anything in the narration or rarely it happens little. After the narrator sometimes uses a tale or hearsay which is known in the region as the frame story in the narration, he passes to his own event. The people in local colorful stories have bordered on being a type of loca lor regional more than a strong individualism. The main emphasis in the narration is placed the interesting and stereotypical localness which they represent, not their spiritual deepness. Their connection to the customs, using of local dialects and personal specialties are suitable fort he region’s general composition are arresting features. However, the other reason of using the dialect in the narration is doubt in supplying authenticity and cogency. The location in the regionalist manner is the main axis of the regionalism emphasis. In this reason, the location which is an inseparable piece of the story. While far and unreachable places were mostly chosen as a location in the regionalist literary works, emphasis is always on imposing nature and its borders. The problem with time of the regionalist literature is mostly about its results. Everything which is good, nice, pure and unspoiled were in the past, the future times which were waited hopefully, don’t give what is wanted. So, time has destroyed nice and clean past, brought new and different things continually. The time factor in the literature of agriculture custom which has strong regional emphasis makes clear in the struggle between past and present. In regionalist fiction, the narrator is mostly the third person who uses the dominant vantage point. The most important feature of this person is an educated person apart from the cadre of the fictional world. Typically, this narrator who protects a certain sympathy with central character and mostly learns something from him, serves as a conciliator and descriptive between the folk culture of the story’s rural atmosphere and urban listener which the story appeals to. In the samples which have chosen the narrator within the narration’s cadre, even though the hero/narrator would be origin of the regional, is always educated person. The Local colorful narrations usually carry an antipathy against change and a nostalgia feeling about the golden ages in the past in different levels. While theme was taking shape in the effect of this basic feeling, national or universal affects which threat the localness, were negated. While the narrator has set position beside the past in the struggle of past and present, He/she has accompanied with the regional in the contrasts of the regional-national or regional-universal. The regionalism in Turkey has been confused with nationalism and localization. However, the regionalism is a smaller concept than the nationalism which is in the meaning of “related to nation, belong to nation”. Though, the common point of the localization, nationalism and regionalism has stated the perspective of one belongs to a certain community. It is seen to possible that observing the characteristics of regional manner as in the example of “Youth Barber” story in Necati Cumalı’s “Kente İnen Kaplanlar” book in Turkish Literature as well. It is seen that not only a certain region is preferred as the location but also the local items are put forward on the platform of the person staff, story line, dialect and style. The aspects which are reflected to the story: The story line in the called story developed around the traditions and accustoms of a society which lives in a certain region. Barber Muhittin as a fiction person hasn’t a strong individualism which was emphasized its psychological deepness but is a type who has a put forward personality as mostly his habitancy’s summary. The location in the story is very important factor of the narration to supply a strong localness feeling. Both the town as out location and the barber shop as interior location serve the aim creating a certain region spirit and atmosphere in the situation of resembled and coalesced each other. A manner which has the dominant values of the age underlining the localness on all occasions and has an attitude against modernism controls the entire story. As another parallelism, the third singular person who has a dominant perspective as narrator was preferred. The person who has all landscapes of the region has been told, rituals and types and in the center of the event as a regional person and the narrator who has empathetic sympathy about him take a peacekeeper and revealing role between the region or regional person and the reader. “The repulsion against change and missing the golden ages of the past” which is the principal theme of the regional literary manner, put forward as a strong point in this story. It is seen that the principal speciality which proclaimed the yesterday-today conflict of American Literature in above named story. The narrator has problems with time and its new values in this story. Muhittin isn’t happy with new times which waited with great hopes and he finds the happiness remembering the past with his equals.


Anahtar Kelimeler

bölgeselci edebiyat, edebi coğrafya, mekân, Necati Cumalı, Gençlik Berberi, literary geography, setting, Necati Cumalı, regionalist literature


Selçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi

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Solak, Ö., (2011). Necati Cumalı’nın “Gençlik Berberi” Adlı Öyküsünde Bölgeselci Eğilimler. Selçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 26, 323-335.