İlköğretim Okulu Öğretmenlerinin Eğitim Planlaması Süreçlerine Yönelik Kullandıkları Metaforlar

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Tarih

2009

Dergi Başlığı

Dergi ISSN

Cilt Başlığı

Yayıncı

Selçuk Üniversitesi

Erişim Hakkı

info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess

Özet

Metaforlar algılanan sosyal gerçekliğin, deneyimlerin, duyguların ve paylaşılan varsayımların seçilmiş ifadeleri olarak sosyal bilimlerde bir araç olarak ortaya çıkmıştır. Metaforik anlamlar üzerine yapılan çalışmaların sonuçları söylenen ve iddia edilenlerle, algılananlar arasındaki boşluğu doldurmanın yanı sıra nitel ve görgül araştırmalara yönelik bir arka plan oluşturur. Eğitimde sürdürülebilir gelişmeye temel oluşturan eğitim planlaması süreçlerinin başarısı ise planlama ve uygulama arasındaki uyumla belirlenir. Bu anlamıyla metaforik imajlara dayanan çözümlemeler, planlara ilişkin öznel anlamları irdelemeye yönelik yapısı ile planların uygulayıcılar tarafından nasıl algılandığına ilişkin alternatif bir çözümsel araç sunar. Başka bir ifade ile planlamaya ilişkin metaforik anlamlar, planlama ve uygulama sürecinde, uygulayıcılardaki öznel algılara dayalı sorunlardan kaynaklanan uyumsuzluğun nedenlerinin belirlenmesinde önemli görülmektedir. Bu araştırmanın amacı kamuda yer alan ilköğretim okullarında görev yapan öğretmenlerin ilköğretimde gerçekleştirilen planlama süreç ve uygulamalarına ilişkin algılarını kullandıkları metaforlar yoluyla belirlemektir. Bu temel amaca bağlı olarak araştırma nitel araştırma yöntemi benimsenerek olgubilim deseni ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırmanın katılımcılarının belirlenmesinde maksimum çeşitlilik örneklemesinden yaralanılmış ve araştırmanın verileri Eskişehir ilinde ilköğretim okullarında görev yapan 23 öğretmenden yarı yapılandırılmış görüşmeler yoluyla toplanmıştır. Araştırmanın verilerinin çözümlenmesinde betimsen analiz tekniği kullanılmıştır. Araştırma sonuçları şunlardır; planlamanın sonuçlarına bağlı olarak öğretmenlerin eğitim sisteminin örgütsel yapısına ve sistemin, okul, öğretmen ve öğrenci boyutlarına ilişkin metaforları farklılaşmakla birlikte; örgüt sistemini mimari yapılara, dinazor ya da ahtapota, parçalı bulmaca ve örümcek ağı gibi yapılara benzetmişlerdir. Bir başka ifade ile öğretmenlerin, örgütü karmaşık ve kapsamlı bir yapı olarak algıladıkları sistemin işleyişinde hantallıktan kaynaklanan sorunların olduğunu ve süreçte öğretmenleri sistemin yürütücüsü olarak fedakar kişiler olarak değerlendirdikleri söylenebilir. Öğretmenler planlama sürecini araştırma yapılmadan gerçekleştirilen, sürekli değişiklik gösteren, alt katmanlara doğru katılımcıların görüşleri alınmayan ve amacına ulaşılması güç bir süreç olduğu şeklindeki metaforlarla ifade etmişlerdir. Ayrıca öğretmenler planlama süreci sonundaki reformların ve bu reformların oluşturduğu dönüşümün yetersiz olduğu yönünde görüşler ortaya koyarken, planlama sürecinde rollerinin çok fazla olmadığı ancak uygulama sürecinde iş yüklerinin ve sorumluluklarının oldukça fazla olduğu yönünde metaforlar kullanmışlardır.
Metaphorical image as one way of attaining insight into such meaning is an alternative way of thinking about educational planning. Metaphor as the expression of selectivity of perceived social reality, re-conceptualization of experiences, expressions of emotions and activated forms of shared assumptions is an alternative way of thinking about educational planning. Departing from symbolic orientation, purpose of this study is to find out perceptions of public elementary school teachers about planning processes in Turkish primary education system via metaphorical images they used. The study was realized with qualitative research techniques. Phenomenological design which is used to reveal individual perceptions or point of views related to specific phenomena was employed in the study. Data was collected from 23 public elementary school teachers. Since the researcher was interested in exploring symbolic images and subjective perceptions about educational planning held by public elementary school teachers having different seniority, school, grades and branch in different elementary schools, maximum variation (heterogeneity) sampling technique was used. In analysis of open ended question in semi-structured interviews descriptive analyze technique was used. Research findings were supported with frequency tables and citations from authentic expressions of respondents. At the stage of identification and explanation of described findings, cause-effect relationships among the research findings and findings of similar researches were also used in order to increase the quality of interpretations realized by researcher. The findings were categorized and the results were discussed under four themes as “metaphors for structure of educational organizations and its components in terms of planning functions”, “metaphors for planning process”, “metaphors for the success of planning process depending on outcomes of reforms” and “metaphors for their perceived roles in this planning process”. About the first theme, organizational structure of educational system in terms of planning functions which were gathered under three categories as building, animal and others, although metaphors produced by elementary teachers seem to represent dispersed point of view, perceived images mainly underline huge, complex and spoiled organizational structure of elementary education system. Focusing on the metaphors produced by eslementary teachers, perceived images mainly indicate lack of coordination and complex network in elementary education system. Besides findings can also be elaborated with concept of ‘problematic goals’ in Cohen and March’s (1974) ‘organized anarchies’ conceptualization. Depending on the metaphors produced by teachers systemic inconsistency and loose collection of perceived images concerning organizational planning appears to be compatible with concept of ‘problematic goals’ in Cohen and March’s (1974) ‘organized anarchies’ conceptualization. Research findings also revealed a the sub-theme under the theme of organizational structure of educational system in terms of planning functions, which is teachers, schools and students in organizational structure of educational system in terms of planning functions. Accumulated perceptions of teachers on their roles in organizational structure of elementary education system indicate that teachers see themselves as a component which is not taken care by the system, although they see themselves sacrificing people knowing useless role in the system. Metaphorical image implies some underlining assumptions about the relationship between teacher and students: the sensitivity and vulnerability of student, student’s helplessness, dependency to teacher, teachers’ responsibility, which are compatible with Inbar’s findings (1996: 83). About the second theme, ‘planning process’ which were gathered under two categories as educational planning in general and planning practices in education. ‘Octopus’, ‘spider on the web’, ‘steps of stair’ ‘sowing seeds by farmer’, ‘stages for solution’, ‘restoration of old house’, ‘the place to be reached with big steps instead of small case ladder’, ‘knowing which ingredients to use for cooking’ and ‘cooking without knowing ingredients’ emerged as metaphors and images to describe educational planning process in general. For the other category, planning practices, teachers used metaphors such as ‘sultanate system’, ‘trial and error’, ‘sowing without examining content of soil’, ‘practices not depending on research’, ‘incoherent practices’, ‘tides’, ‘asphalting an old bridge’, The metaphors for planning process have revealed that central, complex and authoritarian structure of organizational system produce negative impacts on planning process. Since planning processes and practices are performed from top to down without making any research, they are perceived that they are temporal solutions and haven’t reached their objectives. The failure of planning practice is linked with authoritarian and bureaucratic image. About the third theme, ‘the success of planning process depending on outcomes of reforms’ which was gathered under two categories as reforms and transformation. Teachers used metaphors such as ‘top-down vicious circle’, ‘building stores without having a strong foundation’, ‘ ‘sailing with a boat just repaired’, ‘a building having no foundation’, ‘running with high heels’, ‘a table with a broken leg’, ‘changing skin’, ‘arrow off the target’, ‘arising sun in cloudy weather’, ‘characterless’. Especially with the metaphors such as ‘running with high heels’, ‘a table with a broken leg’ and ‘arrow off the target’, teachers expressed their negative perceptions on reforms depending on planned change. About the fourth theme, ‘the elementary teachers’ perceived roles in this planning process’. Most of the metaphors for elementary teachers’ perceived roles in this planning process have revealed negative perceptions of teachers. Although they see themselves as a diligent, sacrificing and critical component of the system (as ‘worker-bee’, ‘worker-ants’ ‘the real conductor of orchestra’ ‘the first stair of ladder’, ‘arms of the octopus’), their perception on their role in planning process is unimportant and ineffective (‘ineffective element -Math: Identity element-, ‘virtual folder in computer’, ‘trace of needle on blank sheet’, ‘the food which is out of sight’, ‘desperate performers laden by paper work’, ‘leaves of a tree far from root’ ‘production line in a factory’ ‘a bird living in a cage’ ‘A child next to last in a family’ with seven children’, ‘porter’, ‘a child drawing a blank’, ‘human climbing ladder’, ‘one of the doors of the room’, ‘the one who is under orders’).

Açıklama

Anahtar Kelimeler

Eğitim Planlaması, Metafor, İlköğretim, Öğretmen, Educational Planning, Metaphor, Elementary Education, Teacher

Kaynak

Selçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi

WoS Q Değeri

Scopus Q Değeri

Cilt

Sayı

21

Künye

Boyacı, A., (2009). İlköğretim Okulu Öğretmenlerinin Eğitim Planlaması Süreçlerine Yönelik Kullandıkları Metaforlar. Selçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 21, 111-124.