Samed-i Behrengî’nin Hikâyeciliği ve İran Çocuk Edebiyatındaki Yeri

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Selçuk Üniversitesi

Erişim Hakkı



Samed-i Behrengî (1939-1968), XX. yüzyılda yaşamış ve genç yaşta hayatını kaybetmiş olan İran Edebiyatının önemli çocuk hikâyesi yazarlarındandır. Yazarın hayatı ve eserlerinin incelenmesi, kullanmış olduğu üslubun ve yaşadığı dönemin özelliklerinin ortaya konulması, Behrengî’nin edebi kişiliğinin ve İran çocuk edebiyatındaki yerinin tespit edilmesi açısından büyük önem taşımaktadır. Samed-i Behrengî’nin hikâyeleri ve masalları birçok kez Türkçeye çevrilmiştir. “Ulduz ve Kelâghâ”, “Ulduz ve Arûsek-i Sohengû”, “Mâhî-yi Siyâh-i Kûçûlû”, “Yek Holû Hezâr Holû” gibi birbirinden eşsiz değerde kaleme aldığı bu hikâye ve masalları ile İran çocuk edebiyatında adını ölümsüzleştirmiştir. Samed-i Behrengî’nin hayatı, dili, üslubu ve edebi kişiliği hakkında araştırılmaya dayalı bilimsel bir çalışma yapılmamıştır. Samed-i Behrengî’nin hikâyeciliği dışındaki yönlerinin Türk okuyucusuna tanıtılmaması büyük bir eksiklik olduğundan bu makalede, okuyucuya bu konu hakkında bilgi verilecektir.
Samed-i Behrengi is one of the most important representatives of the twentieth century Persian Children’s Literature, which has a rich cultural heritage and history though its roots cannot be traced back so far in time. Recognized as one of the most important writers of children's literature, Samed-i Behrengi was born in Tabriz in 1939. Throughout his twenty-nine-year life, he worked as a teacher; he was a writer of children's stories and folk tales, and a translator and complier of stories. Following the elementary school, he studied at Tabriz school of teaching, and after completing his studies, he taught children in the Azeri parts of Iran by traveling from village to village for eleven years; that is, until the end of life. While he was working as a teacher, he attended classes at Tabriz Faculty of Letters, the Department of English Language and Literature at night and did not give up being a student even when he was a teacher. Being one of the writers of Mohammad Reza Shah period, Behrengi wrote many story books translated into various languages around the world. With his precious stories and tales such as "Ulduz and Kelâghâ", "Ulduz and Arûsek-i Sohengû ", "Mahi-yi-i Siyah-i Kûçûlû", " Yek Holû Hezâr Holû,” Samed Behrengi-i has had a significant place Children's Literature in Iran . Samed-i Behrengi has articles and translations apart from his stories. Behrengi first addressed people's social, economic, and folkloric structure. He used all of his experience to give a gift that will be inherited by the children that he had been teaching for many years. Based on his collections of folk literature and folklore he wrote perhaps the world's most qualified children's stories. In the meantime, by examining folk literature of Azerbaijan and Iran and collecting folk tales circulating by word of mouth, he rewrote these matarials in Turkish and Persian. In addition to these literary activities which perhaps form the most important part of his literary activities, he focused on Azerbaijani folklore and the education system in Iran. After determining the shortcomings of the education system, he endeavored to produce solutions. In major newspapers and magazines of his time, by using pseudonyms, he wrote articles about the problem of education. His article titled A Study on Educational Problems of Iran can be considered as an example of such studies. Investigation and research topics were often on folklore. In this field, he wrote the works titled Azerbaijani Language and Folklore and Fairy Tales. Behrengi, was competent both in Persian and Azerbaijani Turkish. He preferred writing in his native language to writing Persian. However, he published his books in Persion since it was forbidden to publish books in Azerbaijani Turkish. Despite this ban, he wrote a poetry book that brings together the Azerbaijani folk poems, and he translated the poems of great Persian poets into Azerbaijani Turkish. In this regard, he had significant contributions to Persian Children's literature. Samed-i Behrengi stories are the products of the impressions of a teacher who doesn’t get accustomed to anything and who explains the cruelty of poverty and ignorance with a brave view. In this regard, the Behrengi said, Now is time to emphasize two issues in children's literature... 1) Children's literature should be a bridge between innocent children’s sweet dreams and their world of dreams, and dark and conscious world of adults, which is plagued by suffering and the difficult realities... 2) The child should be given a prompt worldview and a criterion that he/she can use to evaluate various moral and social issues within the ever-changing conditions and situations in society. Based on this belief, all of his stories are shaped by the conflict of two contradictory social forces. Peasants with no properties fight with the cruelty of masters and they win the battle with the help of willpower as it is the case in Kel Güvercinci “The Bald Man Selling Pigeons” and Sevgi Masalı “The Tale of Love”. In Behrengi’s story Bir Şeftali Bin Şeftali “One Peach and a Thousand Peaches,” villagers’ fight against the Aga is reflected in a peach tree that doesn’t yield any fruits in Aga’s garden. Providing the reader with children's example attitudes and behaviors, to activate their desire to know the real reasons behind natural and social events are realized through developing their power of thinking and imagination. With the help of animals and dolls, children overcome cruelty and ignorance in the world of dreams. The themes and style of the stories of Samed-i Behrengi has made him attractive to readers coming from different cultural backgrounds. Although his works were written for children, they also carry striking meanings for adults. By taking advantage of the art of personification, the writer, who also gives advice for the readers to take a lesson, has helped children to envisage events better in their minds. Samed-i Behrengi, who wrote his works in a way that aroused excitement, wrote about all events that might possibly occur in real life in his stories which he partially adorned with fantasy elements. We understand this in his story titled Pancarcı Çocuk “The Child Who Sold Beet” very well. Here, the story of a child at schooling age, who has to sell beet to look after his family, is told. In the story titled Bir Günlük Düş ve Gerçek “A One-day Dream and Reality”, the writer presents a day in the life of a father and his son who have to leave their town to struggle to earn their living because of the unemployment. In these stories, Samed-i Behrengi reveals how Shah’s reform called White Revolution changed the socio-economic structure. Because leaving their villages millions of peasants with no land migrated to the slums around the cities. On the one hand, the emerging industrial bourgeois were getting richer and richer; on the other hand, the poor and unemployed were economically and politically excluded from the society. What the writer wants his readers to see in these stories are the hopes of a poor child despite all the current difficulties. In this respect, Samed-i Behrengi, who opposed the oppressive regime of his time, expressed the realities of life in his works. He simply informed the reader about the events during the period of the Shah. Behrengi used the language of his people in his works. His works can be enjoyed by people of all ages. Since he wanted his readers to visualize the characters in his stories, he emphasized the events in the stories. In this regard, he exhibits the characteristics of being a realist writer. In his stories, Behrengi often expressed the difficulties experienced in the period of Shah by utilizing symbols, allegories, personification, and associations. On account of the fact that this writing format is appropriate for the fairy tale, he produced successful works in this genre, and he introduced some innovation into it. Because the themes in his works also reflect the realities of life, he attracts the attention of readers of all ages. In Behrengi’s works, in which exuberant and emotional discourse is apparent, while the world of adults are described through that of children, an approach including criticisms concerning social problems is also exhibited. Behrengi also included the expression through mutual talk. In this way, he managed to attract the attention of the reader by making his expressions more lively. Events’ being voiced in a conversational tone made the reader feel that the characters are people among us. His including mutual conversation through direct expression is significant in terms of promoting vitality. As it can be understood from all these, as an educational scientist Behrengi, who lost his life at an early age and was one of the unforgettable writers of Persian Children's Literature, advocated radical and unique reforms. He was against the understanding with pro-American values and ideals in education. As an intellectual person, he strictly criticized the feudal structure fused with religious motifs, and exhibited the structure of oppression and exploitation of the bourgeois state system. He addressed the language hope of Azeris who have faced socio-economic and cultural exploitation for more than two hundred years. He wrote tens of books that will be inherited by all children of the world as a gift. The books that he wrote have so much artistic power that they can fascinate even the adults who read them, but they have the simplicity that a child's brain can process. Behrengi succeeded in blending all these to create a unique universality, and therefore, he will manage to exist for a long time in the future with the help of what he wrote.


Anahtar Kelimeler

Samed-i Behrengî, Samed-i Behrengî’nin Hikâyeciliği, İran Çocuk Edebiyatı, Samed-i Behrengî’s Storytelling, The Persian Children’s Literature


Selçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi

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Ertan, G. G., (2011). Samed-i Behrengî’nin Hikâyeciliği ve İran Çocuk Edebiyatındaki Yeri. Selçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 26, 163-171.