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  • Öğe
    The Use of Human Body as a Medium in Architectural And Structural Education: “Yogarch” Program
    (Selcuk University Faculty of Architecture, 2021) Ensarioğlu, Sebla Arın
    Purpose One of the main difficulties for first year architecture students is to sort out complicated physical rules of constructional systems and reflecting those rules to their designs. These topics are also difficult to understand in built environment education (B.E.E.) designed for children. In order to simplify the learning process of these abstract topics, an experiential program is designed and explained in the scope of this paper. This paper aims to introduce the YogArch program and the outcomes of its implementation. Design/Methodology/Approach This program is based on two different disciplines, which are yoga and architecture. Therefore, it is called “YogArch”. YogArch matches specific yoga asanas (positions) with suitable architectural elements and systemic principles. This program gives the participant a chance to experience these constructional facts on his/her own body. In the scope of this paper 8 different implementations of YogArch program are examined. There are two different participant groups: children and first year undergraduate architecture students. There are totally 221 participants in these two focus groups. In the scope of this research, the outputs of the workshops are collected and analyzed, findings are generated and some suggestions are made on the future use of the program. Findings The outcomes of implemented YogArch workshops are analyzed. According to these findings, this program supports creating built environment awareness for children. For the undergraduate students, the program supported and clarified the knowledge they’ve obtained in their formal courses. Also, it is a practical method for simplifying complicated terms in the curricula. Research Limitations/Implications The YogArch program is based on practicing some yoga poses in order to create physical experience. During the implementation of the workshop schedule, some participants had difficulties due to their own lack of training, in practicing some of the poses which require reasonable amount of strength. In such cases the instructor had to support and direct the participant to practice the pose in a more suitable version and develop body awareness. Practical/Social Implications The safety of a living environment depends on the consciousness level of inhabitants and users. Providing sufficient knowledge on constructional principles of buildings for the entire society and extending built environment education have vital importance especially for the countries which are at risk about earthquakes, like Turkey. Originality/Value This study focuses on offering an experimental education model in structural and architectural design education for all ages. This paper introduces a new educational program called YogArch. The proposed model differs from previous studies, as it expands the educational methods in formal and informal architectural education.
  • Öğe
    Parametric Design as A Creation Tool for The Memory Space
    (Selcuk University Faculty of Architecture, 2021) Yılmaz, Meltem; Mendilcioğlu, Rıza Fatih
    In 1980s, when digital technology flourished, computer was used solely as drawing tool, while in today's architectural environment, digital technology has undertaken the role of being the main component of the architectural production process. Parametric design, algorithmic design and similar digital design methods, gathered under the title of computational design, have been an important tool in the emergence of contemporary architectural products. With its alternatives, parametric design has been one of the most important current architecture’s problem solvers, enabling control of all criteria, from production of forms to efficient use of topography and natural conditions to reflection of local cultural architectural texture. Parametric design with its ability to use all the criteria limiting design as a forming tool has become an instrument that arranges relations of architecture with different disciplines such as ecology, climatology, engineering, geography, sociology, history, archeology, lighting. In this context, parametric design with its potentials such as reinterpretation of traditional architectural forms, understanding of cultural infrastructure with its all layers and considering it as a form source has become a preferred approach in societies expressing their social and cultural changes through architecture, especially in buildings such as museums and libraries they construct. On the other hand, structures’ harmony designed by using parametric design with cultural and environmental factors has been another reason for preference of this method. In UAE, which is a newly established country and attempt to create its cultural memory together with its economic power, in China, which weakened its ties with past after the Mao Revolution and is struggling to change its existing culture to contemporary one to support its economic power, in Istanbul/Turkey which has multilayered historical structure, the parametric form creation methods have been utilized for the museum building’s design. In this study, firstly, parametric design’s role method in memory space design will be discussed theoretically. Subsequently, it is aimed to embody the discussion over three pillars that deal with parametric design method with different approaches. In this sense, the Abu Dhabi Louvre Museum in UAE, which endeavors to create its social and cultural memory, the Yinchuan Museum in China, whose ties with the past have been weakened due to political reasons, and attempts to reconstruct its ancient culture with contemporary understanding of culture, and Istanbul City Museum, which uses parametric design method to present the stratified structure of its local and cultural memory, will be reviewed as model architectural structures of the study. One of the main objectives of the study is to show how parametric design is benefited in these three structures’ designs, how parametric-based form creation methods varies with these three structures, and how the relationship between cultural memory and space is configured differently with parametric methods. Additionally, in the context of the possibilities provided by parametric design, an analysis of the artefact-form relations with the environmental factors of all three museums and discussion of these relations are among the objectives of the study. In the study, descriptive survey method was pursued, and an interview was conducted with Alper Derinboğaz, architect of the Istanbul City Museum (ICM). In the conclusion, information use provided by the parametric design as a form source in formation of societies’ cultural memory, cultural-environmental adaptation possibilities and flexible design understanding were assessed, and the fact that non-euclid and topological form understanding strengthens the monumentality of museum structures were discussed.
  • Öğe
    The Differentiation of Parental Satisfaction with the Spatial Features of Public Primary Schools: The Case of Pendik, Istanbul
    (Selcuk University Faculty of Architecture, 2021) Yılmaz, Cengiz; Paköz, Muhammed Ziya
    Purpose The present study aims to examine the change of parents' satisfaction with the spatial features of public primary schools according to personal, residential, school, and neighbourhood characteristics and to measure to what extent the spatial features explain the overall satisfaction with primary schools. Design/Methodology/Approach Firstly, the study area was divided into 4 clusters by hierarchical clustering method. In proportion to the number of students in each cluster, an online survey was conducted with 807 parents in 19 public primary schools in Pendik between 5-27 May 2020. Personal and residential characteristics obtained from the survey results and school and neighbourhood characteristics obtained from secondary sources were cross-tabulated with the levels of satisfaction on 19 spatial characteristics of the schools. Later, these 19 spatial features were reduced to two basic dimensions with the principal component analysis, and the level of explanation of these dimensions on the overall school satisfaction was revealed by multiple regression analysis. Findings The level of satisfaction of parents with the spatial characteristics of primary schools differs significantly according to personal (15 out of 19), residential (5 out of 19), school (14 out of 19), and neighbourhood (10 out of 19) characteristics. In addition, the parents' satisfaction regarding the spatial adequacies of the primary school has a determinant effect on the overall satisfaction of the parents with the primary school. The most effective factors in the overall satisfaction of parents from primary school are "size of sports fields" and "size of activity spaces". Research Limitations/Implications Similar studies in different cases (both in rural and urban areas), different time periods, and for different education levels should be repeated to compare the results. Social/Practical Implications This research indicates that spatial characteristics should be taken into account in determining the priority improvements starting from the sports fields and activity spaces of schools. Originality/Value The present study evaluates the spatial adequacies of public primary schools and associates it with urbanization and urban planning. It is expected to contribute to the studies to increase the quality of spatial dimensions of primary schools, and consequently urban life quality.
  • Öğe
    The Relationship Between the Public and Private Spaces in Siverek Traditional Settlement
    (Selcuk University Faculty of Architecture, 2021) Kalak, Mazlum; Karasözen, Rana
    Purpose Traditional houses are living spaces that the user shapes over time according to specific environmental factors and needs, which come together in a certain pattern forming some key parts of the traditional settlement texture. This pattern, which also reflects the local culture, is created by the relationships among the public, private, and intermediate spaces. The traditional Siverek architectural settlement is quite rich in such spaces. The main elements that form the urban pattern are the squares and streets that form public spaces, the houses representing the private space, and the in-between spaces such as texture-specific dead-end streets and archways that bridge these two types of spaces. However, due to the uninformed and miscalculated interventions in the original texture, mistimed protection measures, and failure to produce solutions for preservation, these architectural gems are at risk of extinction. At this point, two problems have been identified. The first is the preservation of the historical fabric. Another problem is the incompatibility of the newly planned areas with the old texture and housing layout. The purpose of this study is to provide guidance for new planning by analyzing the spatial arrangement of the traditional Siverek settlement. Design/Methodology/Approach In this context, from public spaces to residential private spaces, the spaces and their spatial relationships in the Siverek settlement plan were examined in a hierarchical order. The interrelationships among the spatial elements specific to the original texture of Siverek were discussed, and their status regarding their functional and spatial features in the urban texture were explained. Findings As a result of the study, it is stated that the traditional settlement texture and architecture of Siverek should be documented and preserved. Furthermore, considering the fact that the physical and social components that shape the spatial elements of the traditional fabric remain valid today, the need to transfer spatial formations and spatial hierarchies between public and private spaces to new designs on the settlement scale and building scale was emphasized. Social/Practical Implications It will serve as a guide for consideration in future designs of the city of Siverek, not by imitating traditional forms, but by analyzing spatial setup. Originality/Value This study is the first study on the public and private space relationship in Siverek.
  • Öğe
    The City Experience with Location-Based Media:An Examination Through Cognitive Maps
    (Selcuk University Faculty of Architecture, 2021) Iavarone, Ayşenur Hilal; Hasgül, Esin
    Purpose The physical space has been an important value for supporting human experience. With the development of mobile devices and location-based media, these technologies have been increasingly present in our virtual spatial experience and the experience of physical city has been changed permanently. Accordingly, this paper aims to discuss the experience potential of urban space with location-based technologies. Design/Methodology/Approach The research structure of this study is based on the literature of location-based media and ‘Space of flow’ theory. Within the methodology, a workshop is conducted to review the cognitive mappings of the virtual city experience. The workshop is structured through two segments: Documenting the spatial experience revealed using location-based media made by cognitive mappings and testing participants' direct experiences within structured questionnaire-based interviews and finally, interpretating of the obtained data. Findings This paper provides an experiential examination of the relationship between the usage of the degree of location-based media and cognitive experience. Findings point out that experience may differ depending on the media interface used and it is controversial comparing with the physical space experience with its multiple relationships. Research Limitations/Implications The research subject had been exemplified with limited location-based media in a specific location. Originality/Value The proposed method of examining the degree of spatial experience by the location-based media linking with interviews determines the originality of the study. There are also limited studies on the topic of location-based media by focusing on the users' cognitive maps.
  • Öğe
    Analysis of Perceptions of Driver Abilities and Behaviorsin Urban Transportation with Respect to Gender Identity
    (Selcuk University Faculty of Architecture, 2021) Özkazanç, Seher
    Purpose Gender inequality is a significant social problem of urban transportation planning. In this context, the main purpose of this study is to determine the stereotypes about the genders of drivers in Turkey. Additionally, the study also aims to reveal the relationship between the talents and behaviors of drivers and gender perceptions. Design/Methodology/Approach This study used a hybrid model which allows the use of qualitative and quantitative methods together. The survey method and focus group meetings were utilized at the stage of data collection. In the study, the quota sampling method was applied. The sample consisted of 1239 participants who lived in the province of Konya in Turkey, had a driver's license, drove more than 10 minutes a day and were between 18 and 68 years old. The questionnaires presented to the participants consisted of three parts. The first part included items on the demographic structure of the sample and driving information, the second part included the female driver evaluation form, and the third part included the male driver evaluation form. These driver evaluation forms were prepared as Likert-type scales in the form of a 37-item sets of perception/bias created by benefiting from the literature and focus group interviews. Findings Men are perceived more positively in terms of vehicle maintenance and driving ability. It is stated that female drivers have more positive driving behaviors than male drivers. The participants who are female, university graduates or whose spouse drives the car have biases that are significantly free from gendered role attitudes. Research Limitations/Implications The fact that the study was conducted only in a sample from Konya and the small number of focus groups that were interviewed constituted the limitations of the study. Social/Practical Implications Gender inequality is a significant social problem of urban transportation planning. To achieve social integration and utilize urban services more effectively, it is needed to try to eliminate prejudices/negative perceptions towards gender in traffic. Originality/Value This study, where determination of stereotypes regarding the gender of drivers and driver perceptions were focused on, is significant especially in terms of the literature in Turkish and has a unique value.
  • Öğe
    Analysis of The Effects of Open Place Performance on Users' Satisfaction Using Post-Occupancy Evaluation
    (Selcuk University Faculty of Architecture, 2021) Özkan, Doruk Görkem; Akyol, Duygu
    Purpose The current article aimed to investigate the effects of functional, social, and perceptual performance dimensions of coastal open place environmental attributes on place satisfaction. In this context, it aimed to develop suggestions for increasing the place performance levels in order to improve the place satisfaction. Design/Methodology/Approach The general framework of the research design was determined by evaluating the functional, social and perceptual features of the place by the users (using post-occupancy evaluation method) and determining the place performance and place satisfaction. Survey questions within this scope; It is structured under two main headings: functional, social and perceptual features of the place and place satisfaction. Each item was measured on a 5-point Likert scale (1 = strongly disagree, 5 = strongly agree). Participants were randomly selected from the Arsin coastal park users. The surveys were conducted with 243 people on weekdays and weekends. Findings The study findings demonstrated that there was a positive and significant correlation between the spatial performance level and place satisfaction using the developed model. It was observed that the environmental factors that affected the place satisfaction included functional, social, and perceptual factors, respectively. It was determined that socio-demographic factors did not affect place satisfaction, while the frequency of occupancy had a positive impact on place satisfaction. Research Limitations/Implications The present study focused on the functional, social, and perceptual dimensions of environmental properties. Thus, considering the diversity of environmental properties, it could not be claimed that the present study methodology and findings revealed all environmental dimensions that affect satisfaction. Social and Practical Implications In the present study, spatial performance data were obtained with post-occupancy evaluation and the factors that affected the satisfaction levels with Arsin Coastal Park (ACP) were investigated. Thus, the present study findings could be considered as very important for urban designers, planners, and administrators. Originality/Value There are studies in the literature that evaluated urban open place satisfaction. However, there are no studies that investigated the effects of open place performance criteria on place satisfaction using the post-occupancy evaluation (POE) method.
  • Öğe
    A Structural Evaluation of Urban Design Guidelines in Turkey and The Performance-Based Approach for Sustainability
    (Selcuk University Faculty of Architecture, 2021) Oktay, Simge Özdal; Ercoşkun, Özge Yalçıner
    Purpose Urban design guidelines (UDGs) provide comprehensive documents that lead to sustainable implementations in the local context. The aim and content of a UDG can differ according to the vision, aim, and associated urban plans. The most common UDG approaches in the world are prescriptive, advisory, and performance-based in order of their appearance in time. The UDGs have been applied in the United States and the United Kingdom since the beginning of the 20th century with the ultimate goal of architectural coherence a nd environmental sustainability. However, their use is relatively very recent in developing countries, including Turkey. Therefore, this study aims to investigate three common types of UDGs in the context of Turkey and provide a deeper understanding their role in achieving urban sustainability from a country-specific perspective. Design/Methodology/Approach Seven UDGs have been found that provides a complete process and an extensive content. Three examples, Izmir Kemeraltı Prescriptive UDG, Rize Advisory UDG, and Gaziantep Bizimşehir Performance-based UDG met the selection criteria of comprehensive content, data accessibility, complete process, and comparability and examined in detail. The examples were evaluated and compared according to their integration into the urban planning system and evaluated based on aggregated sustainability criteria. Sustainability criteria set aggregated based on three sustainability frameworks - European Green City Tool, Urban Sustainability Indicators, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Neighborhood Development (LEED-ND) – applicable to Turkey. Two out of seven UDG examples from Turkey and 11 out of 23 sustainability frameworks from the World could not be investigated further as a result of inaccessible data. Findings As a result, Gaziantep Bizimsehir Performance-based UDG achieved the highest score in the overall criteria aggregated from existing and common frameworks in the world. Research Limitations/Implications It is important to validate the findings by an evaluation of locally defined sustainability criteria for Turkey. However, there is a lack of well-defined publicly available data. Originality/Value The results provided the first comprehensive evaluation of three common types of UDGs in the Turkish context. This study presents a detailed framework for future applications not only in Turkey but also in other regions with the similar context.
  • Öğe
    Interpreting the Factors in Forming the Sense of Place: The Case of Kuzguncuk Neighbourhood, Istanbul
    (Selcuk University Faculty of Architecture, 2021) Erkılıç, Neslinur Hızlı; Özme Elifnaz Durusoy; Taştan, Hasan
    Purpose Over the past few decades, cities have been subject to dramatic interventions such as rapid developments, increased modernization and capitalist production of spaces. These changes, occurring in parallel with globalization, have changed the long-lasting environmental perception and damaged the sense of attachment by transforming urban spaces into unidentified areas. In this regard, the main purpose of this paper is to explore the components of the sense of place and identifying its factors under the changing conditions. This conception aims to develop an integrated proposal that provides a better understanding of fluxional urban areas. Design/Methodology/Approach The methodology of this study consists of two parts; literature review and, field survey which adopts a qualitative approach through a web-based survey and semi-structured short interviews with locals. Within this scope, by chronologically reviewing the literature, the first part of the article questions how the sense of place can be defined and what components can serve to define its perception. In the second part, Kuzguncuk, which is one of the historical and most liveable neighbourhoods of Istanbul, is examined as the case study of this research. Due to its recent designation as an urban transformation area, the study focuses on to reinterpret Kuzguncuk according to its residents’ sense of place. Findings After the findings are obtained and evaluated with a five-point Likert scale, the effect levels of the components on the quality of urban areas and the satisfaction of the people in the neighbourhood are determined. Research Limitations/Implications Due to the pandemic measures, the survey conducted to the residents of Kuzguncuk was carried out digitally, and the interviews were realized by taking into account social distance. Originality/Value This paper foresees to contribute to the literature by developing an empirical study on the concept of sense of place with its descriptive and interpretive approach. Further studies, which can utilize the results of this article, may answer questions about how the components related to sense of place sought out and reinterprets these factors over historical places.
  • Öğe
    An Awareness Experience by Empathic Design Method inArchitectural Design Education
    (Selcuk University Faculty of Architecture, 2021) Şenyiğit, Özlem; Yılmaz, Nur
    Purpose In architectural education, the most important outcome aimed for architect candidates to acquire is the ability to show empathy. This study focuses on designing for users who have special physical needs while addressing the concept of establishing empathy together with universal designing principles in architectural education. Design/Methodology/Approach The empathic design method has been selected as the method of this study. As part of the study, it is aimed for students to offer a design solution in which they would fictionalize a universal design concept together with the empathic design which grounds on universal design principles. Findings As a result of the study, it was observed that when given a key method during the design process, students could approach the design with different points of view and interpret the datum with different approaches. Research Limitations/Implications This study, as part of the Çukurova University Department of Architecture Interior Design class, students were asked to implement interior design projects using the empathic design method with user groups of their choice in terms of characteristic and age range following the empathic design process. Social/Practical Implications It is to develop the awareness of architecture students in the creation process and such studies with different approaches and models to develop their perspectives. Originality/Value To increase the prevalence of accessibility and the participation of the disabled in society, the empathic design method can be foreseen to be a key method in other studies in architectural education.
  • Öğe
    One More Coincide Between Architects and Laypersons on The Aesthetics of Zaha Hadid’s Buildings
    (Selcuk University Faculty of Architecture, 2021) Akça, Berivan Özbudak
    Purpose This study focuses on the subject of environmental aesthetics and aims to identify the differences and similarities that emerge in the general aesthetic evaluations toward the individual style, particularly examining the physical and connotative meanings in the buildings by Zaha Hadid. The study further seeks to understand how individual style fosters aesthetic awareness or common perceptions on a universal level without causing a cultural difference. Design/Methodology/Approach A survey was conducted to understand the visual aesthetic evaluations of architects and laypersons over 16 buildings of Hadid—an architect who managed to develop her own individual style. The visual images created were evaluated in terms of sensorial and physical concepts in order to understand whether there was a common language by evaluating the aesthetic perceptions of subjects with different backgrounds, and to reveal the effect of individual style in forming a universal tongue. Descriptive statics, correlation analysis and independent t test were performed to conduct the evaluations. Findings According to analysis results, the rhythm and organic lines of a building are the most significant elements for building façades and masses in aesthetic evaluations. In addition, no significant differences regarding the dimensions of “liking”, “ornate”, “attractive”, “meaningful” and “warm” were found between the groups. Research Limitations/Implications The survey was conducted between two different subject groups; architects and laypersons. Specific parameters related to the sensorial concepts of the buildings were used. These parameters included the concepts of liking, pleasant, complex, familiar, meaningful, ornate and warm, while for the physical characteristics of the buildings, the concepts of regular/ irregular, full/ empty, rhythmic/ arrhythmic, soft/ hard, meaningful/ meaningless and symmetric/asymmetric were used. Originality/Value This study is significant insofar as it is among the rare research studies that found there to be no differences between architects and laypersons but rather, similarities between them.
  • Öğe
    The Re-Evaluation of Existing School Buildings in Turkey within the Context of ‘Green School’
    (Selcuk University Faculty of Architecture, 2021) Çakır, Sağra; Taygun, Gökçe Tuna
    Purpose It is seen that major repairs and refurbishments in existing school buildings in Turkey are mostly intended for structural reinforcement and physical facilities, and the Green School design principles are not considered in the process of the new school designs and refurbishment applications in existing schools. Moreover, the participation of students, teachers and parents in “environmental decisions” in design process regarding school building and its environment is not ensured sufficiently. The purpose of the research is to determine of the knowledge, views, wishes and tendencies of the students, teachers and parents which are the three main components of the school community related to the general characteristics of the school building and its contribution to environmental education. Design/Methodology/Approach A questionnaire form was used as a tool. The survey was conducted in two secondary schools in Ankara in 2017-2018 academic year. Data were analyzed with SPSS 24.0 with the help of experts. Findings The majority of the participants believe that the open spaces in the schools do not provide enough opportunities for interaction with the natural environment, the green spaces in the schools are not sufficient in terms of quality and quantity, the noise in the classrooms is clearly disturbing, but the artificial lighting, temperature and ventilation were found to be relatively adequate. Research Limitations/Implications When selecting the schools, it was among the schools that are planned to be maintained and repaired in the 2018-2019 academic year by the Ministry of National Education and the schools built after 1990 taking into consideration compliance with today’s conditions and the adaptability of technological systems. Originality/Value This research stimulates readers and stakeholders to discuss the environmental education provided to the future decision makers (children) through the school buildings.
  • Öğe
    Comparative Analysis of Axial Map Drawing Methods: Elazığ Application
    (Selcuk University Faculty of Architecture, 2021) Şıkoğlu, Emrah
    Purpose There are three basic methods used for creating axial maps in Space Syntax studies. Manual drawing is the first and most grounded method. The second method is the production of automatic axial maps with a tool, known as the Axial Map in the Depth Map program. The third and most modern method is the use of lines named Road Center Line (RCL). The primary goal of this study is to reveal the relationship between manual drawing, which is the first method used in creating axial maps and still regarded as the most reliable one, and other methods used in drawing axial maps. The other purposes of the study are analysing the features of methods used in creating axial maps, presenting the advantages and disadvantages of these methods, and comparing the methods. Accurately analysing wide spaces such as urban settlements and supporting Space Syntax studies for preventing drawing differences resulting from users in manual drawings are the other goals of this study. Design/Methodology/Approach The above mentioned three methods used for creating axial maps are compared in the study in terms of the period, morphological similarity, and analysis results. Analyses are carried out in Depth MapX and the MapInfo program is used for arrangements. Findings The manual drawing method is the most time consuming one while the RCL maps technique is the least time-consuming. Automatic drawing creates the axial maps based on the very same rules, which makes it the closest technique to the traditional drawing method in terms of textural similarity. However, it is believed that both automatic drawing and RCL need improvement. Research Limitations/Implications Manuel Drawing takes a very long time. Therefore, only one application city (Elazig) could be selected in the study. Social/Practical Implications The practitioner who wants to decide which of these methods to choose can decide this by looking at this study. He/she can also have an idea of what to pay attention to when using the methods. Originality/Value In this study, three different axial map-drawing techniques were applied to a city. Besides, for the first time, three drawing techniques were compared and discussed in this study.
  • Öğe
    The Effect of Environmental Factors on Children from The Viewpoint of Parents
    (Selcuk University Faculty of Architecture, 2021) Bekci, Banu
    Purpose The main purpose of this case study is to investigate the effect of increasing negative risk factors on children in outdoor playgrounds. There is a close relationship between children's playgrounds and children's health and safety in the open green areas that are gradually decreasing in the urban landscape. Children are faced with increasing parental concerns (abduction, harassment, self-harm, and inability to socialize), attention deficit in children, obesity and depression diseases. For this reason, the quality and livability of the environment we live in appear as factors that affect the decisions of parents on their children. Design/Methodology/Approach In this study, environmental factors and the quality of the environment were examined and the study questioning the concerns of parents about the use of children's playgrounds was discussed in three parts. The first part of the study consists of (i) the examination of children's playgrounds by the parents, the second part consists of (ii) the socio-demographic characteristics of the parents and the third part consists of (iii) the evaluation of the park criteria. Findings The findings obtained show that that parents with young children (2-4 years) (r =-,191*; r =,214**) prefer shopping malls suitable for all weather conditions (r =,261**) if there is not a playground in the garden of the house lived, but in some cases, the shopping mall is not preferred due to the risk of disease transmission and it brings a serious financial burden to families (r =-,163*), and if the parents are given a chance to prefer, they prefer a natural playground made of natural materials (r =-,220*). However, fathers did not prefer to wait at a very close distance for a well-groomed (r =,176*) control (r =,228*) where their children can spend time with their friends (r=,247**) on weekends alone (r =,166*), but it was determined that they were worried about their children being excluded and harmed by their friends (r =,249**). Research Limitations/Implications Children are faced with increasing parental concerns (abduction, harassment, self-harm, and inability to socialize), attention deficit in children, obesity and depression diseases. Originality/Value These data show that "play" has positive effects on children's health, and provides benefit in exploring children's creativity, sharpening their thinking skills and environmental awareness. Based on the results of the article, suggestions were developed on how designers, planners and park managers can implement the results in order to eliminate parents' fears and increase their motivation to take their children to children's playgrounds.
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    Hemp as a Potential Material in Architecture: Is it Possible in Turkey?
    (Selcuk University Faculty of Architecture, 2021) Özdamar, Esen Gökçe
    Purpose Hemp, also known as cannabis sativa, has long been one of the most important agricultural crops—an essential food for humans and animals since the Neolithic period. It is also one of the most-durable raw materials used in both traditional crafts and many newer industries, such as the marine, clothing, automotive, and architectural industries. However, despite its beneficial health properties and use in making durable products, hemp has been banned in many developed countries largely because it has been labeled an illegal plant due to its psychoactive properties. After the 1980s, industrially cultivated hemp in the form of hempcrete, hemp brick or low or high technology cast in situ wall systems gained recognition in architecture. Since the industry 4.0 industrial revolution in the 2000s, the use of hemp has become increasingly important in medicine and nutrition and in industries such as paper, plastics, architecture and construction. Hemp has been illegal for many years in Turkey. However, in Turkish history, using cannabis, hemp and hashish for food, pleasure, socializing, clothing, rope, paper and mortar has been an accepted sociocultural phenomenon. Therefore, this article seeks to evaluate the possibility of using hemp in architecture by addressing its use in architecture, specifically in Turkey. Design/Methodology/Approach This research uses a literature review to explore both the history of hemp in Turkey and its construction applications. Findings The results showed that given enough support, the use of such materials could create beneficial effects for the architecture, construction and education sectors in Turkey. Research Limitations/Implications In the future, a research with funding and permissions could be conducted to observe of the physical and chemical characteristics of hemp and hemp-based materials, which is lacking in this study. Social/Practical Implications Recognizing the benefits of hemp could have positive effects on the economy, health, agriculture and architecture of communities in Turkey. Hemp can replace petroleum-based materials while having the advantages of being cost effective, providing a variety of production possibilities, and needing less water for cultivation. Originality/Value This is the first study to address the potential use of industrial hemp in Turkey from an architecture and design perspective.
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    Use of Augmented Reality in the Preservation of Architectural Heritage: Case of the Aqueduct Kuru Kopru (Kayseri, Turkey)
    (Selcuk University Faculty of Architecture, 2021) Oke, Adeoti Gerard; Kozlu, Hale Hayriye; Çoruh, Levent
    Purpose The architectural preservation embeds all the activities dealing with the sustainability of the built heritage. The representation and diffusion of heritage take a core place in that process. This study aims at the diffusion of the Aqueduct Kuru Kopru towards a broad public audience, establishment of the awareness that Augmented Reality (AR) methods can be used for the evaluation and presentation of the semi-collapsed structures and serving as a model for the representation and diffusion of virtual reconstructions of Architectural Heritage (AH). Design/Methodology/Approach This work refers to restoration and heritage visualization charters, combines Computer-Aided Design (CAD), photogrammetry survey method, and advanced texturing techniques to acquire and model virtual reconstructions of the Aqueduct Kuru Kopru from the Roman-Byzantine period to the year 2017. The paper also describes the frameworks for the implementation of a non-immersive and an immersive AR application to visualize modelled reconstructions. The method used consists of three main stages: modelling of the virtual reconstructions, texturing of models, and development of AR applications. Findings This study establishes AR and cultural heritage digitization techniques as efficient tools to represent and diffuse the Aqueduct Kuru Kopru. It engages a broad public audience in better comprehension and assessment of the aqueduct. Research Limitations/Implications The fact that the research is based on a single case study is a limitation for its generalisation. However, the case examined provides a basis for future work that may validate its findings in different contexts. Originality/Value The paper proposes the rediscovering of long-abandoned aqueduct Kuru Kopru by learning its spatio-temporal evolution through AR. The developed methodology can be easily implemented and puts forward the use of low-cost materials.
  • Öğe
    A Study on Determination of Turkish Adjective Pairs for Speech Sound
    (Selcuk University Faculty of Architecture, 2021) Gürkan, Ezgi Türk; Can, Zerhan Yüksel
    Purpose Disagreement between the designer and the audience causes creation of acoustically uncomfortable spaces, eventually these disagreements cause financial loss. To describe a phenomenon with the same modifier is the key to settle the conflict. It is very important to reveal acoustic conditions and it is necessary to use a common terminology for this purpose. To this end subjective evaluation studies are frequently used, especially in terms of room acoustics. To define sound via adjective and adjective pairs is a method used in determining architectural acoustic conditions in halls, mostly used for music-function halls but subjective evaluation studies are not common for speech-function halls. Turkish adjectives for speech sound that determine audience preferences are missing. Adjectives obtained from translations of different languages do not show the same descriptive effect in a specific language. Therefore, it is important to identify adjectives that define sound for each language. Design/Methodology/Approach In order to determine the Turkish adjectives that define the speech sound, which are absent from the literature, a two-step survey was performed. Sets of modifiers associated with acoustics parameters -reverberation, clarity and loudness- were prepared, that include direct translations from common English modifiers as well as Turkish modifiers that were derived from expert opinion. These sets of adjectives were then presented to the subjects and they were asked to make choices among them. Findings The results of survey where modifiers defining speech sound are assessed are presented. The results show that some are unsuitable in Turkish despite the same word is used in subjective evaluations in English often. Based on the survey results, a questionnaire can be prepared for determining the user preferences in speech-function halls to increase the acoustic comfort conditions. Research Limitations/Implications Need of explaining the room acoustics parameters to the subjects. Social/Practical Implications It is thought that the questionnaire text will benefit the increase of the acoustic comfort conditions in the new and / or existing buildings and reduce economic loss. Originality/Value This study is the first research which examines Turkish adjectives to describe speech sound.
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    Housing Conditions and Problems of Seasonal Agricultural Workers in Eskişehir Sarıcakaya Settlement, and Suggestions
    (Selcuk University Faculty of Architecture, 2021) Güney, Emine Dilay; Kolsal, Fatma
    Purpose The purpose of this research is to determine the seasonal agricultural workers' housing problems in Laçin Village in Eskişehir and to reveal the solvability of these problems through an architectural design studio. Design/Methodology/Approach The research includes two methodological sections. The first section consists of a review of the relevant literature to investigate the historical, legal, administrative and architectural issues on the housing problems of the seasonal agricultural workers. The second phase is based on a case study and a design studio process depending on that case study. The research was conducted in Laçin, to identify the characteristics of the housing problem in place. The data was obtained by observing, measuring, drawing, and photographing the existing housing. A survey was prepared and applied to the workers to gather data about the duration and the character of their stay. Findings It was determined that the seasonal agricultural workers in Laçin had some interrelated social, economic, and spatial problems. The duration of the stay excessing 6 months is found to be the main determinant of the life. In the light of these data, the type of housing of seasonal agricultural workers in Laçin was defined as a “new” typology. It is discovered to be neither temporary, nor permanent housing. It is found to be “semi-temporary housing”. In the research-based design process, the prominent design concepts for the “semi-temporary housing” type were identified from the local parameters and the existing user preferences. They are set as convenience, flexibility, sustainability, and being low-cost. Research Limitations/Implications The scope of the study is the sheltering problem of seasonal agricultural workers in Turkey. Therefore, it needs specifically to be determined and identified within local parameters. Social/Practical Implications The study makes an existing problem visible through fieldwork and reveals that a social change can be provided by developing a physical design proposal. Originality/Value The fieldwork and design studios are important sources of original knowledge production. The information generated in the field belongs to the place, and this data is articulated and adopted for the nine different design solutions.
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    Evaluation of Ecological Design Principles in Traditional Houses in Mersin
    (Selcuk University Faculty of Architecture, 2021) Gündoğdu, Ebubekir; Birer, Emel
    Purpose Advances in technology and rapidly developing built environment lead to increased energy consumption and depletion of natural resources while harming the environment. The concept of ecological architecture emerged to generate solutions to these problems and various characteristics of traditional architecture, such as use of local and natural materials, energy saving etc. became important for contemporary ecological architecture. This paper addresses, from an ecological perspective, vernacular traditional architecture in Mersin, which has rapidly grown into a metropole from a 19th century Mediterranean port town. This study focuses on the ecological design components among traditional Mersin houses. The objective of this study is to reveal the relationships between vernacular traditional houses of Mersin and ecological architecture and to serve as a guide and reference for architects to design and construct in a way that they do not harm the natural environment and ecological balance by learning from vernacular architecture. Design/Methodology/Approach For the case study, 30 traditional houses located in Mersin old city centre, have been chosen to be inspected in terms of storey height, structural system, materials used for the construction, roof shape and materials, topography, selection of orientation, vegetation pattern, building form, spatial organisation, building envelope, use of renewable energy sources, sanitary installation and circulation systems. Yes and no scaled checklists were used to assess 30 traditional houses to identify the components of their ecological status and the quantitative data drawn from these checklists were used for the analyses of the urban texture. Findings It is observable from the analysis that traditional vernacular architecture of Mersin has various qualities that are compatible with ecological design criteria of our day. Research Limitations/Implications 30 traditional houses which have not been restored, have been chosen in Mersin old city centre. Originality/Value The results presented in charts and diagrams are aimed to serve as design recommendations in today’s architectural practice in the area and as an ecological pattern in sustainable development projects performed in the future.
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    The Urban and Architectural Characteristics of Voyvoda Street from Past to Present
    (Selcuk University Faculty of Architecture, 2021) Seçmen, Serengül; Makaklı, Elif Süyük
    Purpose Voyvoda Street in Galata district of Istanbul originated centuries ago at the inner walls of the medieval city and was one of the most significant of its era, which has preserved its unique character and urban identity. In the nineteenth century, it became an important financial axis for the city. This study aims to understand the factors which determined the axial character of Voyvoda Street and its urban identity. The street, which is under the influence of new dynamics is examined in relation to spatial and functional transformation. Design/Methodology/Approach The analysis was developed by two essential components: the street and the buildings that define the character of the street by its architectural components, and their functional transformation since the nineteenth century. The axial character of the street has been evaluated due to selected criteria. The data is based on literature review, the survey of historical maps, visual materials such as photographs and gravure prints, and on-site observations. Findings The street has been shaped and transformed by social, political, and economic developments, external and internal migrations, the influence of modernist architectural movements, urban reforms, Western innovations in transportation, and technical developments. Voyvoda Street’s strong character as an axis is determined by its historical buildings, which are attached to each other continuously that form a wall defining the boundaries of the street. It is one of the essential pedestrian connections and functions as a path. Since most of the buildings lost their original functions, following the re-use for various needs, the service and cultural industries have become dominant. Although the historical characters of some buildings have been changed by new additions, the original silhouette of the nineteenth century is still dominant. Research Limitations/Implications Visual materials and resources of some buildings were available in detail, while for some of them, the materials were limited. Originality/Value The previous studies concentrated on urban, and architectural aspects of Galata district as a whole, whereas this study focused on the urban identity of Voyvoda Street. The street and the historical buildings that define the axial character and the image of the street by its architectural components, and their functional transformation have been analyzed.