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  • Öğe
    The Determination of Population Development and Infestation Rate of Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Ceratitis capitata (Wied)) in Peach Orchards in Meram (Konya) Province
    (Selçuk Üniversitesi, 2019) Üçpınar, Şerife Nur; Ünlü, Levent
    This study was carried out in 2017 and 2018 in Meram district (Konya) in order to determine the population development and infestation rate of the Mediterranean fruit fly (MFF) (Ceratitis capitata (Wied)) (Dip.: Tephritidae) in the peach orchards. In the study, traps called Decis Trap were used to catch the adults of the MFF. As a result of the study, adult population development determined different in two years, two population peaks occurred in 2017 and four times in 2018. The pest may give two to four generation in Meram district according to climatic conditions and years. The first adults of the MFF appeared in 2017 in the third week of August and were active for four months, and appeared in 2018 in the third week of July and were determined to be active in the nature for about five months. In addition to the results of the study conducted in the years 2017-2018, the infestation rates were 5% and 2% in Ekmekkoçu, 3% and 2% in Hasanköy, 96% and 96% in Hatıp, 94% and 100% in Karahüyük, 0% and 2% in Yenibahçe location, respectively. Farmers are advised to use Decis Trap at the beginning of July and to carry out other maintenance work in orchards, especially the destruction of the fruit falling on the ground.
  • Öğe
    The Species and Intensities of Weed Seeds Obtained from Wheat Flour Mill Plants in Turkey
    (Selçuk Üniversitesi, 2021) Bozkan, Neşe; Karaca, Murat
    Wheat production is more than 10% is in first place with potential in Konya plain of Turkey. Weed seeds mixed crop seeds cause quality and yield losses on production. This research was carried out to determine the species, intensity and frequency of weed seeds obtained from flour mill plants operating in Konya. Samples were taken from the 15 flour mill plants with working high capacity in the region. Identification of the weed seeds species in the sample was made. Comparison was made with live materials and reference documents by examining the seeds under a binocular while diagnosis of species. Also, the intensity and frequency of the species contaminated in wheat were determined. As a result of the study, 79 weed seed species belonging to 19 different families were identified. The species of families the most inclusive were Poaceae with 14 species and Leguminosae with 13 species. In order to determine intensity and frequency of species, weed seeds counted by hand, weighed in scale were recorded in laboratory. The highest weed seeds intensity as number and weight among the species were determined Galium tricornutum (rough bedstraw) with 16.16% and Aegilops cylindrica (jointed goatgrass) with 21.22% respectively. About the frequency of species, the most frequent species was Convolvulus arvensis (field bindweed) with 100%.
  • Öğe
    Population Development and Infestation Rate of Codling Moth (Cydia Pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)) in Apple Orchards in Northern Kyrgyzstan
    (Selçuk Üniversitesi, 2021) Uulu, Tair Esenali; Ünlü, Levent
    The codling moth is a key and most widely distributed pest of apple orchards worldwide. The population development of C. pomonella was investigated using sex pheromone traps in different apple orchards between years of 2019 and 2020 in northern Kyrgyzstan. Flight of the codling moth males in apple orchards is characterized by instability, which is associated with temperature and other climatic factors. Trap captures of codling moth were positively correlated with temperature, but negatively correlated with relative humidity and altitude. Male moths started appearing in traps on April 10-14, 2019 and April 26-29, 2020 in Chui and Ysyk-Kol provinces. Analysis of seasonal trap catches from apple orchards over two years summarizes that the codling moth has 4 major peaks in Chui and 3 distinct peaks in Ysyk-Kol provinces. Codling moth damage per orchard ranged from 8.3% to 84.3% in Chui province and it was estimated per orchard from 1.4% to 27.2% in Ysyk-Kol province.
  • Öğe
    Development of Cigarette Beetle [Lasioderma Serricorne (Coleoptera :Anobiidae)] on Spice Plants and Wheat Flour
    (Selçuk Üniversitesi, 2022) Ortaöner, Şükriye Küçük; Çetin, Hüseyin; Elma, Fatma Nur
    In this study, the development of Lasioderma serricorne (F.) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) was investigated on five different foods (Mentha piperita, Thymus vulgaris, Salvia officinalis, Rosmarinus, officinalis and flour). Trials were carried out at a temperature of 28±2°C and 70-75% relative humidity. Effects of foods on development adult longevity and egg hatching ratio of Lasioderma serricorne were investigated. As a result, all of the Lasioderma serricorne larvae left on the Rosmarinus officinalis plant have not completed their development and died. The shortest larval development time was in flour (37.35 days) and the longest in Mentha piperita (62.96 days). The shortest Pupal development time was seen in Salvia officinalis (4 days), while the longest was seen in Thymus vulgaris (4,42 days). Mentha piperita (10,50 days) had the shortest adult longevity and was the longest flour (15,5 days). When the egg development time was examined, it was seen that the shortest time was in Thymus vulgarris (5,42 days) and the longest time was in flour (5,97 days). The rate of larvae that completed its development was highest in flour (92%) and lowest in Salvia officinalis (5%). The rate of pupae that completed its development was highest in flour (80,30%) and lowest in Salvia officinalis (37.50%). In the percentages of hatched eggs, it was observed that the lowest opening was in thyme with 56.27% and the highest opening was in flour with 88.89 %.
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    Molecular Characterization of Thripidae (Thysanoptera) Species in Karaman, Konya and Mersin (Turkey)
    (Selçuk Üniversitesi, 2022) Negiş, İnci Şahin; İkten, Cengiz; Ünlü, Levent; Tunç, İrfan
    Specimens of Thripidae (Thysanoptera) species collected from Konya, Karaman and Mersin (2015-2017) were studied through molecular analyses as a part of preliminary attempts to establish a barcoding system for Thysanoptera in Turkey. The analyses included 23 species namely; Chirothrips kurdistanus zur Strassen, Chirothrips manicatus Haliday, Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), Frankliniella tenuicornis (Uzel), Limothrips angulicornis Jablanowski, Odontothrips confusus Priesner, Odontothrips dorycnii Priesner, Oxythrips ajugae Uzel, Taeniothrips inconsequens (Uzel), Tenothrips anatolicus (Priesner), Tenothrips discolor (Karny), Tenothrips frici (Uzel), Thermothrips mohelensis Pelikan, Thrips angusticeps Uzel, Thrips atratus Haliday, Thrips italicus Bagnall, Thrips linarius Uzel, Thrips major Uzel, Thrips meridionalis (Priesner), Thrips physapus Linnaeus, Thrips tabaci Lindeman and Thrips trehernei Priesner which were detected in various cultivated plants and weeds. The phylogenetic positions of the 9-genera, with few exceptions, to form their own clades by the 18S Ribosomal RNA data on the NJ tree. The 18S data were discussed for the first time for Th. linarius, Th. angusticeps, Th. italicus, Th. meridionalis, Th. physapus, F. tenuicornis, Ch. kurdistanus, Te. anatolicus, Te. discolor, Ther. mohelensis and Ox. ajugae species. Clearly results from the COI dataset in a single UPGMA tree separated the genera. The COI data of Li. angulicornis, Te. anatolicus, Od. confusus, Od. dorycnii Th. angusticeps, Th. atratus, Th. italicus, Th. linarius and Th. meridionalis were obtained for the first time by this study.
  • Öğe
    Population Development and Determination of Infestation Rate of Greenhose Tomato Pests in Karatay and Meram (Konya) Districts
    (Selçuk Üniversitesi, 2022) Çatlı, Merve; Ünlü, Levent
    The study was carried out during the 2018-2019 growing season under greenhouse conditions to determine the population development and infestation rates of Thrips, Leafhopper species, and Tuta absoluta damaging greenhouse tomatoes in Karatay and Meram (Konya) districts. For this purpose, 10 greenhouses of tomato were selected from the two districts. Delta-type sexual pheromone trap, blue and yellow sticky traps were hung in each greenhouse. The traps were placed in the greenhouses alongside tomato seedlings. The pests caught in these traps were counted weekly and recorded. The infestation rate of 25 plants was selected randomly from each greenhouse and their pest infestation was examined. As a result of this study, Thrips species in the districts were found in the early stage of the plant in blue traps and were recorded to be 29 and7 pests per week in Karatay and Meram respectively. Leaf hooppers species emerged in yellow sticky traps during the last stages of plant phenology; and in 2018-2019, a maximum of 5-4 pests per week was determined, respectively. Tuta absoluta, on the other hand, had a high population at the end of the season; in 2018-2019, a maximum of 636-571 adult pests per week were caught oon the traps, respectively. In 2018-2019, whereas the infestation rate of Thrips and Leafhopper species were 0%, the infestation rate of T. absoluta was 18.66% and 18.76%, respectively.
  • Öğe
    Determination of Disease Severity and Anastomosis Groups of Rhizoctonia Solani Isolates from Chickpea Plant in Konya Province
    (Selçuk Üniversitesi, 2022) Bayram, Fatma Rana; Boyraz, Nuh; Kesenci, Kemal
    This study was carried out to determine the anastomosis groups and disease severity of Rhizoctonia solani, which causes root and root collar rot in chickpea production areas in Konya. A total of eleven isolates of Rhizoctonia spp. were obtained in the isolations made from the root and root collar of the plants in the surveys. Rhizoctonia isolates examined microscopically were grouped as multinucleate, binucleate according to the number of nuclei. Ten isolates were multinucleate and identified R. solani, while one isolate was binucleate Rhizoctonia sp. In pathogenicity tests, five multinucleate isolates were found to be pathogenic. Disease severity was determined as 100% for 1.2 A and 1.2 B coded isolates, 86% for 1.1 A coded isolate, 75% for 1.1 B coded isolate, and 44% for 1.2 C coded isolate. It was observed that the other multinucleate five isolates caused only a shortening in plant heights. No disease symptoms were observed in the plants inoculated by the binucleate isolate. All isolates were characterized using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA, and two different anastomosis groups were defined accordingly. It was determined that 5 virulence multinucleate R. solani isolates belonged to AG-4 HGII and 5 other multinucleate isolates to AG BI anastomosis group.
  • Öğe
    The Incidence Rate of White Rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary) Disease in Sunflower Cultivation Areas in Konya and Aksaray Provinces and its Pathogenic Potential
    (Selçuk Üniversitesi, 2021) Koçak, Raziye; Boyraz, Nuh
    This study was conducted between June-September 2017-2018 in sunflower cultivation areas of Konya and Aksaray to determine the incidence rate of white rot disease and its pathogenic potential and to identify the disease agent Sclerotinia spp., Surveys were carried out 11,750 decares in total from Karatay, Altınekin, Cihanbeyli, Karapınar, Kadınhanı and Çumra districts of Konya province and 3000 decares in total from Centre of Aksaray (Hırkatol and Topakkaya village) and Eskil districts of Aksaray province. In the study, it was determined that the isolates obtained from diseased plants belong to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary. Although the disease was not seen in the first year in Konya, the disease rate in Altınekin district was determined as 9.38% in the second year. As a result of the survey studies, the disease rate in the Center of Aksaray in 2017 and 2018, respectively, was 2.83% and 3.97%; in Eskil, while no disease was occurred in the first year, it was determined at a rate of 4.16% in 2018. In the pathogenicity tests carried out with sunflower seedlings using approximately 20% of the isolates, it was found that the disease severity of the isolates varied between 56% and 66% and the difference between the disease severity and scale values of the isolates was statistically significant (P <0.05). Aksaray / Hırkatol was found to be the most virulent isolate in the pathogenicity test.
  • Öğe
    From Climate Change and Biodiversity Towards Sustainable Agriculture
    (Selçuk Üniversitesi, 2021) Kahraman, Ali; Negiş, İnci Şahin
    Agriculture is part of both problem and solution of climatic change besides being one of the most important entire global financial systems. Human pressure on climate is changing quite faster than ever and predicted irreversible destructions over the world. Strategies environment conservation are focused on nature, atmosphere, soil, and every single component of the organisms. From this perspective, all the living organisms are threatened by climatic effects. The worst affects and extinction have been started to be seen on many endemic species. Climate and biodiversity are under destructive effects of human activities while irreversible affects might be destructive for human as well by the main effects on human health, extinction of species, narrowing on living space, disruption of life balance, changes in climate, ecological problems, natural disasters, exhaustion of natural resources, loss of efficiency and yield, etc. disasters which are tending to the term of sustainability of life. Threats to environment might be decreased by support of governments but actually possible by volunteering of public in national and global scales. Present paper reviews the highlights about current statues of climatic changes and threats on biodiversity by summarizing some important issues. Climatefriendly management strategies are required to decrease the agricultural N2O emissions, increasing of people (especially for farmers) awareness, pay attention for sustainable agriculture systems, composting of organic wastes, support to carbon sequestration, well planned grazing of livestock, using of renewable green and effective energy, government investments for protection of biodiversity. It is also recommended that; nature education for everyone is an important issue and essential for solving the problems. Giving information to human about the nature should be well-planned by governments and every single person should be aware the global importance of the topic.
  • Öğe
    The Effect of Global Warming on Migration of Butterflies
    (Selçuk Üniversitesi, 2022) Baraj, Duha Hatem Al; Ögür, Ekrem
    Certainly, global warming is one of the most important environmental problems of mankind today. Increased human activities, especially in the last few decades, like burning fossil fuels, increasing CO2 emissions, deforestation, and other practices have exacerbated the global warming phenomenon. The increase in greenhouse gases leads to an increase in temperatures above the normal rate and this causes fires, droughts, sandstorms, high soil salinity, and fluctuations in precipitation. These changes in the environment affect not only humans but also all living organisms, including insects. Insects are the largest group of living organisms on earth. Therefore, one of the creatures that will be most affected by these changes is insects. Increasing temperatures, rising CO2 levels, and changing rainfall patterns may affect the interaction between plants and insects. For example; the development of insects may accelerate, insect pests and insect-borne diseases, the number of generations in a year and winter survival may increase, the geographical distribution may expand, biological control of the pests may decrease, and as a result of all these, economic losses in crops may increase. Global warming may also affect the migration of insects, in particular, butterflies of which about 600 species have migratory behavior. This may be due to several factors, including the loss of the habitats on which the larvae feed, the nectar resources and the deterioration of their winter habitats, the adaptability and productivity problems in their new habitats, the attack of natural enemies, the disruption of migration signals and the change in wind patterns. In addition, the migration of butterflies may increase with the effect of global warming. Moreover, an increase in temperatures can also cause changes in butterfly morphology, e.g., a reduction in wing size that reduced their flight activity. In this review, we discussed the impact of global warming on butterfly migration.
  • Öğe
    Effects of Climate Changes on Rose Fungal and Bacterial Diseases in Landscape Areas of Konya Province, Türkiye
    (Selçuk Üniversitesi, 2022) Öztürk, Aysun; Baştaş, Kubilay Kurtuluş
    Rose, a plant belonging to the family Rosaceae, is one of the most popular and versatile flowering shrubs in urban landscape areas. In recent years, rose bacterial diseases are getting to increase and they cause significant economic losses. The severity and distribution of these problems change every year according to the changing climatic factors, growing areas, the type of roses and the level of being affected by biotic and abiotic factors. In this study, on the 106 rose cultivars located in landscape areas of Konya province was determined different diseases symptoms at various levels by carried out survey studies in 1998-2022 years. As a result of the diagnosis of obtaining bacterial and fungal isolates, bacterial blights (Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae and P. s. pv. morsprunorum), Xanthomonas hortorum, fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) and crown gal (Rhizobium radiobacter), downy mildew (Peronospara sparsa), rust (Phragmodium mucronatum), black spot (Diplocarpon rosae), powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca pannosa var. rosae), gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) were determined as the pathogen on the rose cultivars. It is thought that the findings obtained from the study will contribute to the future development of rose cultivation by revealing the different pathogens and disease levels in roses as a result of the changing climatical conditions.
  • Öğe
    Comparison of Plant Detection Performance of CNN-based Single-Stage and Two-Stage Models for Precision Agriculture
    (Selçuk Üniversitesi, 2022) Özcan, Recai; Tütüncü, Kemal; Karaca, Murat
    The fact that arable land is not increasing in proportion to the ever-increasing population will increase the need for food in the coming years. For this reason, it is necessary to increase the yield of crops to make optimum use of arable land. One of the most important reasons for the decrease in yield and quality of crops is weeds. Herbicides are generally preferred for weed management. Due to deficiencies in herbicide application methods, only 0.015-6% of herbicides reach their target. The use of herbicides, which is an important part of the agricultural system, is an issue that needs to be emphasized, considering the risk of residue and environmental damage. In parallel with the rapid development of electronic and computer technologies, artificial intelligence applications have had the opportunity to develop. In this context, the use of artificial intelligence for plant detection in the subsystems of herbicide application machines will contribute to the development of precision agriculture techniques. In this study, the plant detection performances of single-stage and two-stage Convolutional Neural Network (CNN)-based deep learning (DL) models are evaluated. In this context, a dataset was created by taking images of Zea mays, Rhaponticum repens (L.) Hidalgo, and Chenopodium album L. plants in agricultural lands in Konya. With this dataset, the training of the models was carried out by the transfer learning method. The evaluation metrics of the trained models were calculated using the error matrix. In addition, training time and prediction time were used as quantitative metrics in the evaluation of the models. The plant detection performance, training time, and prediction time of the models were 85%, 8 h, 1.21 s for SSD MobileNet v2 and 99%, 22 h, 2.32 s for Faster R-CNN Inception v2, respectively. According to these results, Faster R-CNN Inception v2 is outperform in terms of accuracy. However, in cases where training time and prediction time are important, the SSD MobileNet v2 model can be trained with more data to increase its accuracy.
  • Öğe
    Determination of Antagonistic Effect Between Some Fusarium Species and Root Bacteria Isolated from Eggplant Roots
    (Selçuk Üniversitesi, 2022) Ersöz, Gökçen; Boyraz, Nuh
    In this study, it was aimed to determine the antagonistic effect between and isolated from eggplant roots and some root bacteria conditions. 24 bacteria were isolated from soil samples taken from the rhizosphere regions of infected and non-infected plants in different eggplant production areas and 22 of them were evaluated as candidate biocontrol agents. According to the results of the research, 13 out of 22 bacteria were effective against, 14 against, and 9 against between 40% and 100%. The most effective bacteria against were 22B (100%) and 11B (74.4%). Among the bacteria tested for effectiveness against, 3B (100%), 10B (100%) and 18B (100%) completely inhibited fungal growth. These bacteria are followed by 11B (88.85%) and 13B (85.55%). 11B and 24B inhibited mycelial growth of 100%.
  • Öğe
    Plant Viruses and Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) Relationships: A Shiny Application
    (Selçuk Üniversitesi, 2022) Öncü, Faruk; Baştaş, Kubilay Kurtuluş
    In the face of climate change, the point of view of existing agricultural production systems is changing, and biological issues are gaining importance in terms of sustainable agriculture. Environmentally friendly biological solutions come to the forefront in the management of diseases and pests that put pressure on sustainable agriculture. It has been proven by many studies that plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have positive effects on plant growth, as well as reduce or prevent viral diseases. However, determining the targeted virus species, the PGPR strains used, or the plant strains tested requires a serious literature review and reading. In this study, which can be considered as a preliminary study, a database of PGPR and plant virus relations literature was created in a dynamic infrastructure that can be constantly updated, and a web interface was developed as an R/shiny application. Thanks to this preliminary study, which has examples in different fields, it is thought that it is possible for researchers to quickly access the literature on the subject, plan costeffective projects, and identify the missing or potential points of the subject. According to the information in the database, it was determined that CMV was the most targeted virus, different strains of Bacillus and Pseudomonas genera were used the most as PGPR agent, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) were the most tested plant species, and single applications were tested more. It is thought that this and similar studies will enable researchers to gain a quick perspective on the subject, facilitate the management of the information they have acquired, and contribute to effective planning in their new studies.
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    The Effect of Sex Ratio and Population Density on Adult and Female Egg-Laying Behavior and Female Longevity of Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)
    (Selçuk Üniversitesi, 2022) Mahmood, Omar Samee; Çetin, Hüseyin
    This study was conducted to determine the effects of sex ratio and population density on Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) adult and female egg laying behavior. This study was conducted to determine the effects of sex ratio and population density on Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) adult and female egg laying behavior. The studies were carried out in the laboratory of the Department of Plant Protection of the Faculty of Agriculture of Selçuk University and in the climate room at 28±1ºC, 70±5% relative humidity and dark environment. Experiments were carried out in 1 Liter jars with 4 replications. Seven for the sex ratio in the trials (1/1.2/1.3/1.4/1.5/1.6/1.7/1 Male/Female), five for the population density (2/1.4/2) .6/3.8/4.10/5 Male/Female) (in a fixed sex ratio of 2 male/female) different parameters were used. According to the results obtained, an increase was observed in the number of eggs laid by a female from the early stages to the intermediate levels in the sex ratio and population density. When we look at the effect of the sex ratio, the number of eggs laid by the female in the ratio of 5 males / 1 females reached the highest level with 312 eggs. In the population density, the female left the largest number of eggs (360 eggs) at a density of 9 adults. In mass production of P. interpunctella, the highest number of eggs will be obtained from females if the adult population density is 9, the sex ratio is 5 males / 1 female and adult food is provided.
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    Climate Change and Plant Health: A Bibliometric Analysis
    (Selçuk Üniversitesi, 2022) Öncü, Faruk; Yeşil, Serkan; Baştaş, Kubilay Kurtuluş
    Climate change, the effects of which are becoming more evident day by day, is seen as a serious threat to sustainable agriculture. As a result of the diseases and pests being affected by climate change, it is inevitable that changes will occur in the state of plant health, which has an important place in sustainable agriculture. Evaluation and analysis of the literature is of great importance, as research and assessments focusing on the impact of climate change on plant health use current knowledge. In this study, which was carried out to contribute to the aforementioned subject, bibliometric analysis was performed on the indexed researches on climate change and plant health in the Web of Science (WoS) database according to the determined search query. Information on different subjects such as authors, countries, published journals, citations, sources used and keywords related to the studies were analyzed with the Bibliometrix package developed in R software and the data were visualized. Quantitative results were obtained on subjects such as prominent authors, journals, countries, and common keywords as a result of bibliometric analyses. According to the results, the importance of multidisciplinary studies is becoming more and more important. In addition, it is gaining popularity to benefit from technological developments in the face of changing and emerging needs in the processing of all kinds of information about climate change. This study was carried out to show that there is an alternative way to gain a general perspective on climate change-related issues in similar studies to be carried out. It is thought that these and similar bibliometric analysis studies can contribute to the execution of more successful studies, thanks to the information on different topics they provide.
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    The Effect of Some Pre-Emergence Herbicides on Weeds and Corn Yield
    (Selçuk Üniversitesi, 2022) Koç, Merve; Karaca, Murat
    In this study, two herbicides (Isoxaflutole 225 g/l + Thiencarbazone-Methyl 90 g/l + Cyrosulfamide 150 g/l and Dimethenamid-P 280 g/l + Terbuthylazine 250 g/l), which are commonly used pre-emergence period against weeds that cause problems in corn planting areas were investigated. The experiments were carried out under field conditions in order to investigate the effect of registered dose of the herbicides to the weeds and corn yield components at the Konya province in 2018 – 2019 years. Herbicides Isoxaflutole 90 g/l + Thiencarbazone methyl 150 g/l + Cyprosulfamide and 280 g/l Dimethenamide-p + 250 g/l Terbuthylazine were tested in the pre-emergence period of the corn plant at doses of 35 ml/da and 300 ml/da, respectively. As a result of the experiments, Isoxaflutole 90 g/l + Thiencarbazone methyl 150 g/l + Cyprosulfamide were determined as the most effective herbicide to control weeds and increase corn yield components when it was applied during pre-emergence period. The effectiveness of herbicides was determined according to the biomass of weeds and their number in m2 . In addition, in both years, A. retroflexus was determined as the most intense species with 16.83 plants/m2 and 32.97 plants/m2 ratios respectively, in the experimental areas. Considering the corn stem diameter, cob length, corn stem length, corn stem dry and fresh weight, dry and fresh cob weight, thousand-grain weight and yield per decare in both years, it was determined that the active substances used increased in yield 2 to 3 times compared to the weed control plots.
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    Determination of Some Virus Diseases on Gerbera Plants in Antalya Province
    (Selçuk Üniversitesi, 2022) Yeşil, Serkan; Albayrak, Betül
    Gerbera spp., which is in the Asteraceae family, is the most widely cultivated cut flower ornamental plant in Türkiye after carnation. Approximately 74% of Türkiye's production is met from Antalya province. Virus diseases are a problem in the cultivation of Gerbera as they significantly reduce the yield and quality. In this study, which was carried out to detect some virus diseases seen in Gerbera production areas in Antalya province, surveys were carried out in commercial production areas in the 2021-2022 production season. For this purpose, a total of 112 leaf samples, which are thought to be infected with viruses, were collected from 100 Gerbera plants showing symptoms similar to virus disease symptoms and 12 selected weeds regardless of the presence of symptoms. These leaf samples, which were later brought to the laboratory, then were tested by the Double Antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (DASELISA) method to detect infections of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tobacco streak virus (TSV) and Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV). As a result of the tests, TSWV (41.9%), CMV (1.7%) and TSV (37.5%) infections were detected in Gerbera plant samples. In addition, TSWV (25%) infections were most common in weed samples, followed by TSV (16%) and CMV (8.3%) infections. The presence of INSV virus was not detected in any of the leaf samples tested by DAS-ELISA. With this study, TSWV, TSV and CMV infections in Gerbera production areas in Türkiye were revealed for the first time.
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    Determination of Inhibition Effect of Propolis Extract on Watermelon Mosaic Virus in Edible Seed Squash
    (Selçuk Üniversitesi, 2022) Yeşil, Serkan
    Edible seed squash (Cucurbita pepo L, ESS), which is grown for its seeds to consume as a snack, has a very important place in vegetable production in Türkiye. Viruses are one of the most problems in the cultivation of ESS in the country. One of these diseases is Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV, Potyvirus, Potyviridae). Also, it’s very common and devastating on other cucurbits worldwide. Propolis, which is composed mainly by the plant resins and exudates that honey bees gather, showed antiviral activity against plant and human viruses. In this study, the potential of propolis to control WMV was investigated by taking advantage of these antimicrobial properties of propolis. For this purpose, propolis extracted with 95% ethanol and diluted in distilled water to obtain different concentrations as 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% were used. Effects of propolis against WMV were determined by in vitro and in vivo studies. Except of 2, and 4%, all concentrations caused to symptoms reductions of the infection, in all studies. In the result of in vitro studies, the ratios of healthy plants were calculated as 10, 20, 40% and 20, 30, 50% after one and two hours, respectively. In vivo, by spraying concentrations of 6, 8 and 10% before inoculation obtained healthy plants as 20, 40 and 60% after one-hour period, and as 20, 30 and 50% after two-hour period, while the extracts sprayed after inoculation, ratios of healthy plants as 10, 20 and 30% after one-hour period, and as 10, 20 and 20% after two-hour period. According to the results of the study, it was determined that applications of different propolis concentrations had the potential to reduce WMV infection, and these results should be supported by field trials.
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    Efficacy of Some Trichoderma Isolates as Biocontrol Agents Against Rhizoctonia solani Kühn in Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)
    (Selçuk Üniversitesi, 2023) Salman, Özden; Boyraz, Nuh
    This study was carried out to determine the in vitro and in vivo activities of Trichoderma isolates isolated from soil and plants collected from different provinces in 2020-2021 against Rhizoctonia solani, which causes root rot in beans. Using the pathogen as a trap, 61 Trichoderma isolates were obtained from 65 soil samples from 20 provinces. In addition, 8 Trichoderma isolates previously obtained from different plants were included in the experiment. Trichoderma isolates showed very strong (4 Trichoderma isolates), strong (1 Trichoderma isolate), moderate (18 Trichoderma isolates) and low level (18 Trichoderma isolates) hyperparasitic effects against R. solani in in vitro experiments with dual culture method. In comparison, some isolates (28 Trichoderma isolates) were found to be ineffective. As a result of in vivo tests with 10 Trichoderma isolates selected according to the effect results in vitro, it was determined that Trichoderma isolates were 8-89% effective against R. solani. The most effective Trichoderma isolates against R. solani was Trichoderma virens-130 with an 89% effect, followed by Trichoderma-106 and Trichoderma-162.1 with 82% and 75% effect, respectively. According to these results, it was observed that the isolates of Trichoderma, which were moderately and highly effective in vitro, significantly reduced the severity of the disease in vivo.