Gıda Mühendisliği/Makale Koleksiyonu

Bu koleksiyon için kalıcı URI

Güncel Gönderiler

Listeleniyor 1 - 20 / 192
  • Öğe
    The Effect of Dried Peach Leaves Powders with Different Methods on Lipid Oxidation, Textural and Sensory Properties of Patties
    (Selçuk Üniversitesi, 2022) Cabi, Alime; Sarıçoban, Cemalettin; Ünal, Kübra
    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the dried peach leaves powders with different methods on pH and Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values, cooking, textural and sensory properties of beef patties. Samples were divided into six treatment groups; control (without peach leaf powder/ Butylhydroxytoluene (BHT)), patties with BHT (0.01%), patties containing peach leaf powders (PLP) dried in air (AP) (%1) and in microwave oven (MwP) in three different concentrations (0.5%, 1%, 2%). Sample were stored at +4 ºC for 7 days. The pH of raw beef patties containing various levels of PLPs decreased slightly (P<0.01). The MwP addition significantly decreased (P <0.01) the TBARS value compared to the without peach leaf powder. At the end of the storage period, the TBARS value of the control group was 4.14 mg MDA/kg, while the TBARS value of MwP3 was 0.67 mg MDA/kg.
  • Öğe
    Investigation of the Quality Characteristics of Naturally Cured Sucuks with Dill, Spinach and Swiss Chard Powders During Refrigerated Storage
    (Selçuk Üniversitesi, 2022) Babaoğlu, Ali Samet; Karakaya, Mustafa
    The purpose of this study was to analyze the R&D approaches of business The current study investigated the effects of dill, spinach and Swiss chard powders on the physicochemical (pH, TBARS, colour, residual nitrate and nitrite), microbiological (TMAB, LAB and total yeast-mould) and textural properties (TPA) of sucuks during refrigerated storage for 90 days. Five different groups of sucuk were prepared containing T1: 100 mg/kg sodium nitrite; T2: 100 mg/kg sodium nitrate; T3: dill powder 0.71%; T4: spinach powder 0.29% and T5: Swiss chard powder 0.26%. Swiss chard powder decreased the pH values of samples (P < 0.05). It was determined that the most effective curing agent in terms of TBARS numbers was spinach powder (T4). The residual nitrate was not detected in the groups of T4 and T5 all the refrigerated storage (P < 0.05). Curing with different vegetable powders did not affect the microbiological counts of sample (P > 0.05). Natural curing agents decreased the redness values of samples (P < 0.05). The highest chewiness value was determined in the group of T5 (P < 0.05). These results suggest that Swiss chard and spinach powders could be recommended as a natural curing agent in the sucuks.
  • Öğe
    Effects of Dephytinized Wheat Bran on Rheological Properties of Dough and Sourdough Fermentation
    (Selçuk Üniversitesi, 2022) Babaoğlu, Hümeyra Çetin; Akın, Nihat; Özkaya, Berrin
    In this study, the rheological properties of flours containing wheat bran or dephytinized wheat bran at different rates (0, 5, 10, 15%) and some physicochemical and microbiological properties of bread doughs produced with sourdough by using these flour mixes were investigated. Four different sourdoughs, which were spontaneous (SS), Vakfıkebir (VS), containing Lactobacillus fermentum as a starter (LFS) and containing Lactococcus lactis as a starter (LCS), were used. The water absorption, softening degree, resistance to extension values of dough increased while the stability, energy and extensibility values decreased as the rate of bran increased for both bran types. The pH and total acidity (TA) values of the bread dough samples generally increased with the addition of bran. The lowest moisture content, TA and LAB count, and the highest pH and yeast count were obtained in VS. The lowest pH and the highest TA values belonged to the bread dough samples containing SS. The number of LAB and yeast counts in bread dough samples increased with addition of bran compared to control sample.
  • Öğe
    The Effect of Exopolysaccharide Producer Pediococcus Damnosus 2.6 and Yoghurt Starter Cultures on Ethanol Content, Some Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Oat Boza
    (Selçuk Üniversitesi, 2020) Göktepe, Çiğdem Konak; Elgün, Adem
    Cereal-based fermented beverages like boza are known functional and probiotic foods. Boza is manufactured by yeast and lactic acid bacteria fermentation of only ones or mixture of various cereals. In this research, the effects of sugar, different microorganisms and inoculum ratios on physicochemical, nutritional and sensory characteristics of oat based boza were investigated. For this purpose, oat based boza production was carried out by 3 different of inoculation rates (0, 3 and 5%) of 3 starter cultures (Pediococcus damnosus 2.6, Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus). The usage aim of Pediococcus damnosus 2.6 and yoghurt starter cultures was for the production of exopolysaccharide and lactic acid. As a result of using mixed culture and rising inoculation rates stimulated fermentation activity in formulation of boza. Thus, the amount of total solid matter was reduced and increased the contents of ash, protein and mineral matter of oat boza samples. Although the lowest viscosity was determined in Pediococcus damnosus 2.6 inoculation, the most uniform texture was provided. Raw oat had unpleasant odor and flavor but fermentation enhanced sensorial properties of oats. The highest overall acceptance score was observed in oat boza with 3% of yoghurt starter cultures.
  • Öğe
    Enumeration of Bifidobacterium Spp., Lactobacillus Acidophilus and Starter Cultures from Commercial Probiotic Yogurts and Freeze-Dried Yogurt Starter Mixes
    (Selçuk Üniversitesi, 2022) Demirci, Talha
    Probiotic yogurt is a popular functional food to deliver of probiotic cells for the health-enhancing effects worldwide. The viability of probiotics in yogurt before consumption is the most important factor to providing desired effects, however, probiotic microorganisms have occasionally inadequate viability in marketable food products. In this current study, Bifidobacterium spp., L. acidophilus and yoghurt starter bacteria enumerations were made in commercial probiotic yoghurt and freeze-dried yogurt mixes. RCA 5.3 and MRS 5.2 media were used for L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus counting, ST Agar and M17 Agar were used for Stretococcus thermophilus counts. While using MRS-Bile Agar and RCAClindamycin Agar for L. acidophilus enumeration, Bifidobacterium spp. counts were performed using MRS-NNLP medium. 5 out of yoghurt samples (A, C, D, and E) did not reveal satisfactory recovery (< 5 log CFU/g) for L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus colonies on MRS 5.2 Agar while L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus colony counts on RCA 5.3 Agar below 5 log CFU/g for same tested 4 samples (A, C, D, and E). The recovery rates over 9 log CFU/g were obtained in the enumerations made for all yogurt samples on both ST and M17 media. The problem of insufficient recovery rates that occurred for L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in some yogurt samples was not valid for S. thermophilus. This work indicated that high amounts of L. acidophilus were detected on both media in both of the two yoghurt samples declared as L. acidophilus on the label (F and G). On the other hand, bifidobacteria was determined above 5 log CFU/g in only 1 yoghurt sample (B) out of 7 probiotic yoghurts claimed to be Bifidobacterium spp. This study reveals relevant information on probiotic and starter counts of commercial probiotic yogurts in Turkey and discusses in detail the possible reasons for the results obtained.
  • Öğe
    Effects of Replacing Breadcrumbs with Buckwheat, Chickpea, Corn and Millet Flour in Gluten-Free Meatball Formulation
    (Selçuk Üniversitesi, 2022) Babaoğlu, Ali Samet
    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different gluten-free flours on the physicochemical, textural and sensory properties of meatballs. Five different groups of meatballs were produced: C: control meatballs with breadcrumbs, Gf1: meatballs with buckwheat flour, Gf2: meatballs with chickpea flour, Gf3: meatballs with corn flour and Gf4: meatballs with millet flour. The chickpea flour increased the protein content of raw meatballs (P < 0.05). The cooking yield results were higher in gluten-free meatballs than in control samples (P < 0.05). Chickpea flour (Gf2) and corn flour (Gf3) were the most effective flours for reducing the diameter of meatballs (P < 0.05). The highest antioxidant activity was found in the meatballs with buckwheat flour (Gf1) (P < 0.05). The chickpea flour improved the texture of the meatball samples (P < 0.05), while corn and millet flour increased the hardness and chewiness values of the meatballs (P < 0.05). Millet flour decreased the flavour score compared to the control (P < 0.05), whereas the other gluten-free flours had no significant effect on all sensory properties of the meatballs (P > 0.05). This study suggests that chickpea flour had a better effect on the quality characteristics of meatballs among gluten-free flours.
  • Öğe
    Natural Alternative Curing Agent in Fermented Sucuk Production: Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris var. saccharifera L.) Molasses
    (Selçuk Üniversitesi, 2022) Dilek, Nazik Meziyet; Karakaya, Mustafa
    In this study, sugar beet molasses was used as a natural curing agent in the production of fermented Turkish sucuk in two different forms (molasse and powdered molasse). Some quality characteristics were determined during the ripening (1st, 3rd and 5th days) period of the obtained sucuk dough (0. day) and sucuk samples. In order to compare the effects of molasses and powdered molasses used as natural curing agents in sucuk, a control (K) group containing sodium nitrate was formed. The application of the natural alternative curing process in sucuk production causes a decrease in the pH value and TBA content of the samples during the ripening period, whereas causes an increase in the nitrosomyoglobin and residual nitrate contents. As a result of microbiological analysis, it was determined that the natural alternative curing process increased (P<0.05) the number of LABs and there was no significant change in the total yeast-mold numbers during the ripening period (p>0.05). In addition, total Coliform group bacteria were not detected in sucuk dough and sucuk samples on the last day (5th day) of the ripening period. Consequently, it has been determined that it is possible to reduce the amount of chemical nitrate by using sugar beet molasses and powdered molasses as natural curing agents in sucuk formulation.
  • Öğe
    Monitoring of Changes in the Quality Characteristics of Cooked Chicken Döner Kebabs Formulated from Mechanically Deboned Chicken Meat Subject to Refrigerated Storage
    (Selçuk Üniversitesi, 2023) Öney, Ayşe; Karakaya, Mustafa; Babaoğlu, Ali Samet
    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM) on the physicochemical and sensory properties of chicken döner kebab during 28 days of storage. Five different groups of chicken döner kebab were produced: C1: Control 1 including chicken breast meat, C2: Control 2 including ground chicken breast + transglutaminase, M1: 95% ground chicken breast + 5% MDCM + transglutaminase, M2: 90% ground chicken breast + 10% MDCM + transglutaminase and M3: 85% ground chicken breast + 15% MDCM + transglutaminase. The addition of MDCM to chicken döner kebab samples increased the pH value of the samples (P < 0.05). The TBARS values of the chicken döner kebabs increased during the storage period, especially on the 21st and 28th day. Groups M1, M2 and M3 had lower lightness (L*) and higher redness (a*) values than the control groups (P < 0.05). The addition of MDCM had no negative influence on the sensory parameters of the samples (P > 0.05).
  • Öğe
    The effect of harvest times on bioactive properties and fatty acid compositions of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-barbarica A. Berger) fruits
    (ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2020) Al Juhaimi, Fahad; Ghafoor, Kashif; Uslu, Nurhan; Ahmed, Isam A. Mohamed; Babiker, Elfadil E.; Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Fadimu, Gbemisola J.
    In the study, the impact of harvest time on total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and phenolic compounds of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-barbarica A. Berger) fruit pulp and the oil content and fatty acids profile of the seed were investigated. The highest total phenolic content was determined as 156.77 mg/100 g in July 1 harvest, while the maximum antioxidant activity and total oil content were found as 9.81% and 6.80% at the last stage of maturation (15 August), respectively. The highest oleic (28.51%), palmitic (22.61%) and stearic acid contents (9.20%) in seed oil were observed in June 15 harvest. The highest value for linoleic acid (57.50%) was detected in August 15 harvest. Prickly pear is a vital source of bioactive constituents such as phenolic and antioxidant substances in terms of being useful for human health and the optimum harvesting time to retain high quantities of most phenolic compounds is 1st July.
  • Öğe
    Moisture sorption isotherm, isosteric heat and adsorption surface area of whole chia seeds
    (ELSEVIER, 2020) Arslan Tontul, Sultan.
    This study aimed to evaluate moisture sorption isotherm of whole chia seed. The equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of seeds were detected by saturated salt solutions which have the water activity (a(w)) range of 0.2-0.9. The isosteric sorption heat was calculated by the Clausius-Clapeyron equation using three different sorption temperatures (15 degrees C, 25 degrees C and 35 degrees C). The adsorption surface area of seeds was also calculated by monolayer moisture content obtained from BET and GAB equation. The EMC content of seeds had an increasing trend and determined as 18-20 g H2O/100 g solid at the highest a(w) level. The whole chia seeds became less hygroscopic with the rising sorption temperatures at constant a(w). The moisture sorption isotherm was determined as Type II. The monolayer moisture content was determined as 2.39-2.91 g H2O/100 g solid. BET and Peleg were the best-fitted models. The isosteric and net isosteric heat were 77.74 and 34.74 kJ/mol at lowest moisture content, respectively. Additionally, the adsorption surface area changed between 95.31 and 102.72 m(2)/g.
  • Öğe
    Influence of hot and cold break tomato powders on survival of probiotic L. paracasei subsp. paracasei F19, texture profile and antioxidative activity in set-type yoghurts
    (ELSEVIER, 2020) Demirci, Talha.; Sert, Durmuş.; Aktaş, Kübra.; Atik, Didem Sozeri.; Negiş, Hale İnci Öztürk.; Akın, Nihat.
    The yoghurt samples enriched with hot and cold break tomato powders (HBT and CBT) were evaluated by monitoring the changes in some physicochemical properties and bacterial viability during storage. Besides, radical scavenging activity, total phenolic contents, and textural parameters of samples were determined. Tomato powders were added at different levels (0.5, 1, 2%) and L. paracasei F19 was used with starter culture in yoghurt production. Total solids and ash content of yoghurt without powders were lower than the others. HBT supplementation significantly increased DPPH and ABTS + scavenging activities and the highest activities were determined in yoghurt samples containing 2% HBT (197.7 g/kg, 4.84 mol trolox/kg respectively). Total phenolic content of samples ranged from 5.00 to 14.92 g GAE/kg. The addition of tomato powders decreased firmness and viscosity and plain yoghurt was found to be more consistence (12161.80 g s) and cohesive (219.50 g). The pH values of samples decreased whereas titratable acidity values increased throughout 21 days of storage and L. pantacasei F19 counts was higher than 10(6) CFU/g at the end of storage.
  • Öğe
    Different properties of chicken and turkey breast fillets marinated with fruit juices
    (DEUTSCHER FACHVERLAG GMBH, 2020) Ünal, Kübra.; Alp, Halime.; Babaoğlu, A. Samet.; Karakaya, Mustafa.
    This research determined the effects of three different dark coloured marinades containing black mulberry (MJ), grape (GJ) and pomegranate juices (PJ) on pH value, water holding capacity (WHC), cooking loss (CL) and colour (L*, a*, b*) properties of chicken and turkey breast meats. Lipid oxidation (Thiobarbituric acid value-TBA), antioxidant activitiy (DPPH-2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), textural properties (Meullenet-Owens razor shear force and energy) and sensory analyses of the samples were also performed. Fruit juices generally decreased the pH and WHC values compared to control. The meat samples treated with MJ had the highest a* value and the marination with PJ increased the b* values of samples. Turkey breast samples marinated with GJ were determined to be the most tender. Marinating with fruit juices significantly inhibited lipid oxidation and increased (p < 0.01) the DPPH values in chicken and turkey meats. These natural marinades should be recommended to develop consumer acceptability of chicken and turkey breast meat samples.
  • Öğe
    Effect of microwave and oven drying processes on antioxidant activity, total phenol and phenolic compounds of kiwi and pepino fruits
    (SPRINGER INDIA, 2020) Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Al Juhaimi, Fahad; Ahmed, Isam A. Mohamed; Uslu, Nurhan; Babiker, Elfadil E.; Ghafoor, Kashif
    Kiwi and pepino fruits are most valuable fruits as they contains substantial amounts of nutrients and bioactive compounds. These fruits exhibited several health potentials such as antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antiobesity, antihyperlipidemia, and anticancer properties. However, studies on the effect of microwave and conventional drying methods on the antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds of kiwi and pepino fruits are limited. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the effect of microwave and oven drying methods on antioxidant activity, total phenolic, and phenolic compounds of kiwi and pepino fruits. Drying of the fruit samples was carried out using conventional (70 degrees C for 20 h) and microwave (720 W for 3 min) ovens. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging and colorimetric Folin-Ciocalteu assays were used to assess the antioxidant activity and total phenolic contents, respectively, of fresh and dried fruits. Both drying methods significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the moisture contents of both fruits compared to untreated controls. Concomitantly, drying methods also enhanced (p < 0.05) antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of both fruits with the highest improvement being observed for microwave-dried fruits compared to untreated controls. In addition, a significant increase was observed in catechin and 1,2-dihydroxybenzene content of kiwi and pepino after drying process. However, microwave drying method reduced the amount of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid in kiwi (ranging from 34.120 to 9.350 mg/100 g) and pepino (varied from 33.414 to 15.445 mg/100 g). Generally, the highest antioxidant activity and phenolic contents were reported in microwave oven dried samples, followed by samples dried in oven and fresh fruits. The results revealed that microwave drying could be more useful in fruit drying than conventional drying. In addition, dried kiwi and pepino fruits contains substantial quantities of phenolic compounds with high antioxidant activity compared to fresh fruits, and thus they are considered as healthy food.
  • Öğe
    Characterization of physico-chemical and bioactive properties of oils of some important almond cultivars by cold press and soxhlet extraction
    (SPRINGER INDIA, 2020) Ozcan, Mehmet Musa.; Al Juhaimi, Fahad.; Ghafoor, Kashif.; Babiker, Elfadil E.; Ozcan, Mustafa Mete.
    The oleic acid composition of almonds oils expressed by cold press varied from 73.56% in Cristomorto cultivar to 76.59% in Tuono while oleic acid in oils extracted by soxhlet method ranged from 71.86% in Cristomorto and 75.63% in Tuono cultivars. Also, oil from cold press extraction contained 19.51% and 21.86% linoleic acid for Ferragnes and Tuono almond cultivars, respectively, while 18.74 and 20.51% linoleic acid was recorded in Soxhlet extracted oil from Ferragnes and Tuono almonds, respectively. In addition, alpha-tocopherol contents of the oil samples varied significantly (p<0.05) from 14.18 to 16.86 mg/100 g in Tuono and 15.71-17.96 mg/100 g in Ferragnes for cold-press and soxhlet extracted oils, respectively. beta-Sitosterol composition of the oil obtained by cold press ranged from 157.94 (Tuono) and 171.68 mg/100 g (Cristomorto) while beta-sitosterol content varied from 148.91 (Tuono) and 159.68 mg/100 g (Cristomorto) for oil extracted by Soxhlet method.
  • Öğe
    Co-Culture probiotic fermentation of protein-enriched cereal medium (Boza)
    (ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2020) Arslan-Tontul, Sultan.; Erbas, Mustafa.
    Objective: Boza is a fermented cereal beverage which is produced by co-culture fermentation of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts. In addition to the nutritional properties of cereals used in the production, it is also suitable to be gaining functional properties by fermenting with probiotic microorganisms. Methods: In this study, protein content of probiotic boza was increased by the addition of gluten, zein and chickpea flour and the volatile compounds formed during co-culture fermentation of the cereal medium with Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Saccharomyces boulardii were determined. Results: It was determined that chickpea added boza provided the highest cell counts of Lactobacillus acidophilus (7.92 logs CFU/g), Bifidobacterium bifidum (7.32 log CFU/g) and Saccharomyces boulardii (3.26 log CFU/g) during storage. With the addition of gluten, the protein content of the sample was enriched four times more when compared with control boza. During fermentation and storage, a total of 36 different compounds were identified with the major compounds as 9,12-octadecadienoic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid, hexadecanoic acid and hexadecanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethyl ester. The concentration of volatile compounds generally decreased during storage of samples. According to Principle Cluster Analysis results, enriched protein samples had similar projections due to their fatty acid contents and the main difference was shown in the control sample. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that chickpea, single or mixture with cereals, can be a good substrate for probiotic microorganism production for acceptance as probiotic foods.
  • Öğe
    Characterization of oil uptake and fatty acid composition of pre-treated potato slices fried in sunflower and olive oils
    (JAPAN OIL CHEMISTS SOC, 2020) Alkaltham, Mohammed Saeed; Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Uslu, Nurhan; Salamatullah, Ahmad Mohammad; Hayat, Khizar
    In this study, the oil uptake and fatty acid composition of fried potato slices were determined. Some pre-treatments such as blanching, freezing, and blanching-freezing were applied to potato slices before frying while the untreated samples were used as a control. The frying process was carried out in sunflower and olive oils. The percentage oil uptake in slices varied from 4.26% to 10.35% when fried in sunflower oil. In the case of the control samples slices fried in olive oil contained high monounsaturated fatty acid (oleic acid) content (5.45%), and lesser oil uptake was observed than those processed in sunflower oil, which is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acid (linoleic acid is 5.99%) (p < 0.05). The oil uptake was also compared in the case of potato slices fried in two different oils after pre-treatments. The maximum oil uptake was observed in the case of blanched-frozen potatoes, whereas minimum oil uptake was observed in frozen only slices for both oils. The fatty acid contents in oils extracted from fried potato slices showed that the predominant fatty acids were palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids. The best results were observed in frozen potato slices fried in both sunflower and olive oils.
  • Öğe
    The use of probiotic-loaded single- and double-layered microcapsules in cake production
    (SPRINGER, 2019) Arslan-Tontul, Sultan; Erbas, Mustafa; Gorgulu, Ahmet
    To date, the probiotic product development studies have mostly focused on dairy-based foods. However, endowing bakery products with probiotic properties not only provides a variety in food selection but would also potentially improve public health when the consumption rates are taken into consideration. This study aimed to incorporate single- and double-layered microcapsules containing Saccharomyces boulardii, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Bifidobacterium bifidum, produced by spray drying and chilling, in cake production. Microcapsules were added after baking to the three different types of cakes (cream-filled, marmalade-filled, and chocolate-coated). Additionally, the microcapsules were injected into the center of the cake mix and baked at 200 degrees C for 20 min, for plain cake only. After baking of plain cakes, the count of S. boulardii and L. acidophilus as determined in the double-layered microcapsules produced by spray chilling was 2.9 log cfu/g. The survivability rates of S. boulardii and L. acidophilus were also determined as 67.4 and 70.7% in this microcapsule, respectively. However, there were no viable B. bifidum detected after baking. The free forms of these probiotics did not survive in any plain cake experiments. Single-layered microcapsules produced by spray chilling provided a better protective effect on the probiotics in cream-filled and marmalade-filled cake samples during storage, particularly the cream-filled cakes. This study showed that combined spray chilling and spray drying microencapsulation techniques (double-layered microcapsules) could increase the survivability of probiotic microorganisms during the cake baking process. During storage, the cake samples had a near neutral pH value, and the textural properties deteriorated due to staling. However, cake staling had a limited effect on the sensorial attributes of the cakes and the samples could be readily consumed after storage for 90 days.
  • Öğe
    The influence of industrial refining stages on the physico-chemical properties, fatty acid composition and sterol contents in hazelnut oil
    (SPRINGER INDIA, 2020) Duman, Erman; Özcan, Mehmet Musa
    In this study determined influence of industrial refining stages on the physico-chemical properties, fatty acid composition and sterol contents in hazelnut oil. According to this, while acidity values of hazelnut oil obtained from refining stages change between 0.11 (deodorized) and 1.44 (crude), peroxide values of oil samples were determined between 10.4 meqO(2)/kg (winterized) and 12.5 meqO(2)/kg (crude oil). In addition, iodine values of oils taken from each refining stages varied between 85.06 (notralized) and 87.45 (deodorized). While oleic acid contents of hazelnut oils taken from refining stages change between 84.08% (winterized) and 84.68% (neutralized), linoleic acid contents of oil samples ranged from 6.79% (neutralized) to 8.56% (winterized). Total saturated and unsaturated fatty acids of oil samples changed between 6.84% (deodorized) and 8.00% (neutralized) to 92.00% (neutralized) and 93.16% (deodorized), respectively. While campesterol contents of oil sample change between 3.56% (deodorized) and 4.87% (crude), delta-5,23-stigmastadienol contents of oil varied between 0.48% (deodorized) and 2.87% (neutralized). The highest sterol had beta-sitosterol, its amount changed between 54.98% (deodorized) and 73.96% (crude oil). In addition, delta-7-avenasterol contents of hazelnut oil obtained from refining stages varied between 4.85% (crude oil) and 28.33% (deodorized).
  • Öğe
    The investigation of bioactive compounds of wine, grape juice and boiled grape juice wastes
    (WILEY, 2019) Gülcü, Mehmet; Uslu, Nurhan; Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Gökmen, Fatma; Özcan, Mustafa Mete; Banjanin, Tijana; Gezgin, Sait; Dursun, Nesim; Geçgel, Ümit; Ceylan, Durmuş Ali; Lemiasheuski, Viktar
    In this study, bioactive compounds, oil, sugar, fatty acid, and mineral contents of grape wastes (pomace, skin, and seeds) obtained from wine, grape juice, and boilled grape juice production were investigated. Total phenol and tannin contents of grape by-products varied between 31.2 mgGAE/g (molasses skin) and 98.97 mgGAE/g (wine seed); 96.93 mgTAE/g (grape juice pomace) and 138.67 mgTAE/g (molasses pomace), respectively. The highest (377.57 g/kg) and lowest (20.00 g/kg) total sugars were determined in molasses and wine skin wastes, respectively. Epicatechin contents of samples were found between 439.67 mg/kg (molasses skin) and 3,444.57 mg/kg (molasses seed). The lowest and highest linoleic acids were determined in molasses skin oil (40.00%) and grape juice skin oil (51.10%). alpha-Tocopherol contents of wine by-product oils changed between 3.35 mg/kg (seed) and 6.42 mg/kg (pomace). The lowest and highest P contents were determined in molasses skin (17,563 mg/kg) and wine seed (29,634 mg/kg), respectively. Practical applications The residue may represent from 13.5 to 14.5% at the total volume of grapes, and may reach 20%. The most abundant phenolic compound in wine pomace is anthocyanins concentrated in the skin, and flavonols present mostly in the grape seed (56-65% total flavonol). Grape is a phenol-rich plant, and these phenolics are mainly distributed in the skin, stem, leaf, and seed of grape, rather than their juicy middle sections. Skins and seeds of grapes are produced in large quantities by the winemaking industry. These by-products have become valuable raw materials due to their high content of polyphenols, tocols, and other macro- and micronutrients. Seed and skins of grape produced in large quantities by the wine making industry have become valuable raw materials for extraction of polyphenols.
  • Öğe
    The influence of fermentation and bud sizes on antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds of three different size buds of Capparis ovata Desf. var. canescens plant
    (SPRINGER INDIA, 2020) Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Ahmed, Isam A. Mohamed; Juhaimi, Fahad Al; Uslu, Nurhan; Osman, Magdi A.; Gassem, Mustafa A.; Babiker, Elfadil E.; Ghafoor, Kashif
    The impact of fermentation and bud size on the antioxidant activity, total phenolic content (TPC), and bioactive compounds of caper buds were investigated. The results showed significant differences in the bioactive properties depending on bud sizes and fermentation process. Antioxidant activity values of fresh caper buds were ranged between 69.61% (bid size) and 72.78% (small size), whereas the values of fermented ones varied between 12.50% (big size) and 39.09% (small size). TPC of fresh caper buds were found in the range of 357.81 mg GAE/100 g (medium size) and 372.22 mg GAE/100 g (small size), while those of fermented buds were ranged from 167.53 mg GAE/100 g (medium) to 246.01 mg GAE/100 g (small). Apigenin-7-glucoside, (+)-catechin, 1,2-dihydroxybenzene, and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic, syringic, and gallic acids were the major phenolic compounds in both fresh and fermented caper buds. Overall, this study clearly demonstrated that both fermentation process and bud size significantly affected the antioxidant activity, TPC, and phenolic compounds of caper buds.