Coğrafya Dersi Öğretim Programında Küresel İklim Değişikliği

Yükleniyor...
Küçük Resim

Tarih

2009

Dergi Başlığı

Dergi ISSN

Cilt Başlığı

Yayıncı

Selçuk Üniversitesi

Erişim Hakkı

info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess

Özet

Dünyada iklimlerde meydana gelen değişiklikler, Küresel İklim Değişikliği (KİD) olarak adlandırılmaktadır. İklim değişikliğinin temel nedenini çevre sorunlarının oluşturduğu bilinmektedir. Son yıllarda dünyada olduğu gibi Türkiye’de de görülen sıcaklık, basınç ve yağış gibi iklim elemanlarının normal kabul edilen değerlerin dışına çıktıkları gözlenmektedir. Kimi bilim insanları subtropikal kuşakta yer alan Türkiye’nin KİD’nden en çok etkilenen ülkeler arasında yer alacağını belirtmektedir. Yasal çerçevede alınan önlemler, çevrenin korunmasında etkili olmaktadır. Ancak, bunların yeterli olmadığı sık sık çeşitli bilimsel ortamlarda dile getirilmektedir. Nitelikli bir çevre oluşturma konusunda yapılabilecek etkili yollardan biri de, eğitimden yararlanmaktır. Bunun için öncelikle, çalışma alanı KİD’ni kapsayan eğitim programlarını incelemek gereklidir. Böylece, elde var olan olanaklar belirlenerek daha etkili önlemler geliştirilebilir. Eğitim programları incelendiğinde KİD eğitimine uygun olanlardan birinin Coğrafya olduğu görülmektedir. Bu araştırmada, Coğrafya Dersi Öğretim Programında; KİD’ne ilişkin hangi kazanımlara, öğrenme alanlarına, etkinliklere, becerilere, değerlere, ölçme ve değerlendirme tekniklerine yer verildiği ve bunların programda ne oranda olduğu araştırılmıştır. Çalışmada nitel araştırma yöntemlerinden doküman analizi kullanılmıştır. Araştırmada uygulanmakta olan Coğrafya Dersi Öğretim Programı temel alınmıştır. Çalışmanın güvenilirliği açısından amaçta belirtilen öğeler, iki araştırmacı tarafından ayrı ayrı incelenmiş ve görüş birliği ilkesine uyulmuştur. Araştırmanın sonucunda Coğrafya Dersi Öğretim Programında, her sınıf düzeyinde KİD’ne ilişkin kazanımlara yer verildiği görülmüştür. KİD açısından önemli olabilecek kazanımlara ve etkinliklere özellikle “Çevre ve Toplum” ile “Doğal Sistemler” öğrenme alanlarında yer verildiği saptanmıştır. Araştırmanın sonucunda 2005 Coğrafya Dersi Öğretim Programının öğrencilerde KİD’ne ilişkin bir bilinç oluşturmayı amaçladığı görüşüne ulaşılmıştır. Bu bilincin daha da geliştirilmesi için araştırmanın sonuçlarına dayalı olarak bazı önerilerde bulunulmuştur.
Changes in the climate around the world are called Global Climate Changes (GCC). It is known that the main reason of climate change lies within environmental problems. Recently, climate in Turkey has also been out of normal range just like the rest of the world; and weather events such as heat, rain, and pressure have been experienced more differently than the past years. According to some scientists, Turkey, being in the subtropical zone, will be one of the countries that will be influenced by GCC significantly. Legal precautions are seen effective in the protection of the environment. However, they are often stated to be inadequate in various scientific occasions. Education can be one of the most effective measures in creating a qualified environment. The growing body of individuals with environmental awareness within the rapidly expanding world society can be a seriously preventive precaution in preserving and improving the environment. The population growth in Turkey accentuates the importance of environmental education. Therefore, some sort of training on GCC should be provided at every level. Thus, instructional programs whose scope covers GCC should be analyzed first. This will enable one to develop more efficient precautions. Analysis of the instructional programs reveals that Geography is appropriate for GCC education. Geography scrutinizes events happening in the environment in terms of the reciprocal relation between nature and human. Since geography investigates the conditions and environment that GCC is observed, it can be used to raise awareness in next generations. This study examines what gains, learning fields, activities, skills, values, and assessment techniques related with GCC are included in the Instructional Program for Geography Course (IPGC), and what their inclusion frequencies are. Documentary Analysis technique, one of the qualitative research methods, has been utilized in this study. The IPGC, which is already in effect, has served as a basis for this study. Components outlined in the purpose part have been analyzed by the two researchers in order for the reliability of the study and in accordance with agreement principle. Analysis of the IPGC has resulted that some gains regarding GCC are included within the program for each grade level. Especially the learning fields of “Environment and Society” and “Natural Systems” have been determined to cover the gains that are most meaningful in terms of GCC. The highest number of gains related with GCC has been found in the 9th and 11th grades. One can state that there is a certain consistency among the grades in terms of the number of gains, except for 10th grade that holds the least number of gains related to GCC. The rate of gains regarding GCC has been compared to the general number of gains in order to see the ratio. The highest and the least numbers of gains have been identified in the 9th and 10th grades, respectively. The rate of gains concerning GCC can be said to be consistent with the total number of gains for 11th and 12th grades. The IPGC includes activities related with GCC across various grade levels. The activities that matter the most in terms of GCC are under the scope of the learning fields of “Environment and Society” and “Natural Systems”. One other learning field, which is “A Spatial Synthesis: Turkey”, also consists of some gains regarding GCC, few in number though. 11th grade is the level that the number of activities related with GCC reaches its peak. A consistency in terms of the number of activities has been identified across the 9th, 11th and 12th grades. It is again the 10th grade that has the least number of activities on GCC. The frequency of activities related with GCC has been investigated in comparison with the total number of activities in order to see the rate. 9th and 10th grades have been determined to include the highest and the least numbers of activities on GCC, respectively. Both gains and activities regarding GCC have been noted to be consistent both in number and rate across all the grades. Skills to question use evidence, and to perceive change and stability can be said to matter the most in terms of GCC. It is known that the IPGC also aims to furnish students with other skills such as critical thinking, creative thinking, problem solving, and decision making. All the geographical skills within the target scope of the IPGC and all the applications can be said to be highly important in terms of GCC. However, skills of questioning and perceiving time, change, and stability stand one step ahead among the others in order to grasp the reasons and results of GCC. The Program emphasizes attitudes and values as much as it does the skills and concepts. Following are some of the attitudes within the objectives of the Program: solidarity, love, respect, sensitivity, esthetic, and responsibility. On the other hand, the Program does not clarify the learning fields and the gains and skills that these values will be taught together. All these skills and values are important in terms of GCC. The result of the analysis has shown that the IPGC 2005 aims to improve the students’ awareness about GCC. Based on the results of the analysis, following have been suggested in order to further expand this awareness: 1. Learning fields that each gain, skill, and value will be taught should be made clear.2. The number of gains and activities regarding GCC should be increased for the 10th grade due to the vitality of GCC. 3. New gains and activities can be added to the learning field of “A Spatial Synthesis: Turkey” by taking the importance of GCC in Turkey into account 4. The IPGC clearly states how each gain should be evaluated. If students study on a process basis, their gains, values, skills, and attitudes can be positively affected. Therefore, process-based techniques should be applied during evaluation. 5. The significance of the Instructional Program in raising awareness about GCC can be made clear through both qualitative and quantitative studies over students and teachers.

Açıklama

Anahtar Kelimeler

Coğrafya Eğitimi, Coğrafya Dersi Öğretim Programı, Küresel İklim Değişikliği, Geography Education, The Instructional Program for Geography Course, Global Climate Change

Kaynak

Selçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi

WoS Q Değeri

Scopus Q Değeri

Cilt

Sayı

22

Künye

Gökçe, N., Kaya, E., (2009). Coğrafya Dersi Öğretim Programında Küresel İklim Değişikliği. Selçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 22, 157-168.