Eğitim-Öğretim Yaşantısında Stres Yaratan Faktörler ve Aile Özelliklerine Göre Öğrencilerin Stresle Başaçıkma Davranışlarının İncelenmesi

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Selçuk Üniversitesi

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Bireyler kendilerinden, sosyal çevrelerinden ya da ailelerinden kaynaklanan farklı birçok stres durumuyla karşılamakta ve bu durum eğitim-öğretim hayatlarını etkilemektedir. Bu etkilenme sonucunda, içinde bulundukları koşullara özgü davranışlar sergilemekte ve farklı stresle başaçıkma davranışları göstermektedirler. Araştırmada eğitim-öğretim yaşantısında stres yaratan faktörler ve aile özelliklerine göre öğrencilerin stresle başaçıkma davranışları ortaya konulmaya çalışılmıştır. Veri toplama aracı olarak “Stresle Başa Çıkma Tutumları Envanteri (SBTE)” kullanılmıştır. Ölçekte yer alan ifadeler, stresle başa çıkma durumu ile ilgili 6 boyutu (aktif planlama, dine yönelme, dış yardım arama, biyokimyasal kaçma-soyutlanma, kabul-bilişsel yeniden yapılanma ve duygusal-eylemsel kaçma soyutlanma) ölçmektedir. Söz konusu ifadeler 5’li likert ölçeği ile ölçeklendirilmiştir. Ölçekte Hiçbir zaman=1, Ara sıra=2, Bazen=3, Sık sık=4 ve Her zaman=5 olarak puanlanmıştır. Araştırmanın evrenini Gazi Üniversitesi Ticaret ve Turizm Eğitim Fakültesinde 2008–2009 yılında eğitim-öğretim gören toplam 2220 üniversite öğrencisi oluşturmuştur. Örneklem çapını ise 509 öğrenci oluşturmuştur. Araştırma sonucunda; öğrencilerin eğitim-öğretim hayatlarında en çok stres yaratan durumlar arasında birinci sırada gelecek kaygısı (%35,4) yer alırken, bu oranı ekonomik sorunlar (%20,6) ve sınav ve ölçme değerlendirme sistemin (%14,3) takip ettiği tespit edilmiştir. Bununla birlikte; araştırmada, aile özelliklerine ilişkin yüzde ve frekans hesaplamaları verilerek, öğrencilerin stresle başaçıkma davranışlarını ortaya koyan boyutlar ile aile özellikleri arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı farklılık olup olmadığı güncel istatistiksel programlar ile (Varyans analizi testi) analiz edilmiştir. Araştırmaya katılan öğrencilerin stresle başa çıkma davranışlarında aile yapıları itibariyle; Dine Yönelme boyutunda, aile tutumları itibariyle; Aktif Planlama, Dine yönelme ve Dış Yardım Arama boyutlarında; kardeş sayıları itibariyle; Dine Yönelme ve Kabul Bilişsel Yeniden Yapılanma boyutlarında; ikamet ettikleri yer itibariyle; Kaçma – Soyutlanma (Biyokimyasal) boyutunda istatistiksel olarak anlamlı farklılık olduğu tespit edilmiştir (p<0,05). Bu sonuçlar; aile özelliklerinin stresle başaçıkma tutumlarında önemli bir etken olduğunu ortaya koymaktadır. Öğrencilerin stresle başaçıkma davranışlarında aile önemli olduğundan, ailelerin öğrencilere karşı olumlu davranışlar sergilemeleri ve özellikleri öğrencilerin stres düzeylerini etkileyecek ve eğitim- öğretim hayatlarında başarı düzeylerini arttırabilecektir.
The concepts of stress and coping with stress appear as an important factor in the area of education as they do in many areas. In addition to personal characteristics of students, their family structures and the environment they have grown up in cause differences in their ways in coping with stress. Within the scope of the study, it has been tried to present the ways in coping with stress according to their family features, presenting reasons causing stress on students. When we take a look at studies concerning stress, we see that they date back to so old times and most of the studies have been done in the last 30-40 years. This is because of reasons such as the increasing of rapid change at all points, the transition to knowledge era from industrial era, the change in competition and production conditions, the emergence of differences in human needs, getting metropolis and need for skilled human resources (Gökdeniz, :173-174). There are many definitions concerning stress in literature. Stress became known by public in 1950s and in 1970s so many people were worried about harmful effects of stress. Stress has been defined as epidemic of the decade by Time Magazine in 1980s and as the illness of the 20th century by United Nations in 1990s (Krohe, 1999: 36). Stress, which is encountered in every stage of life, is defined as an introverted reaction of people to the situations they perceive as threat or difficulty (Durna, 2006:320). As for Hans Selye, stress is the non-specific response of the body to any demand for change. (Conlan,2001,s.82). Stress is what happens when mental and physical borders of the body are threatened and forced (Baltaş ve Baltaş, 2008: 23). It is seen that stressed people have reactions such as increasing of the heartbeat, breathing excessively, hypertension, headaches, nauseas and breast aches, fatigue, insomnia and tending towards alcohol (Klarreich, 1999: 11). The constant existence of these physical reactions cause stress on people and cause harmful results (Weiss, 1993: 17). For stress to develop, a person, at a certain level, must be affected by changes happening in the environment in which he is or maintains his life (Erkmen ve Çetin, 2008: 232). People encounter stress factors arising from general environment (family problems, monotony, economic problems, social and cultural changes, transportation problems existing in the city in which the business is and technological developments), from himself (his sex, his being emotionally introverted or extroverted, his having a supporter or competitive attitude in terms of relationships, his being emotionally vulnerable, his resistance for negativenesses and his need for success generally) and from social life (diet, climate, heritage, religion, social class, the feeling of overcrowdedness and isolation) (Çetinkaya, 2006: 24). The person’s developmental phase experiences, his heredity, his personality structure, his manner of communication, the needs and motions, his social-economic class, meaning of the situation causing stress for the person, his belief system and his perceptual features, his intellectual sources depending on his education and background information, his locus of control, sex, intelligence and his past experiences also may develop as stress sources on the person (Partlak,2003: 8). The concept of stress, which is used by so many people in daily life, has been discussed in many studies and the individual has had to find out instinctively how to cope with situations that go beyond the borders of the individual even if he couldn’t consciously realize the resemblance of reactions he gives at the situations that are too much for him (Selye,1997: 22). The aim for coping with stress is decreasing the amount of stress that negatively effects the individual’s life and productivity. In short, coping with stress is decreasing or demolishing the emotional stress that is caused by stress factors, or it is empowering the behaviours or emotional reactions that are made to resist that stress (Güney, 2001:538). As students live the last stage of adolescence, which is one of the periods during which students are mentally most tempestuous and which is accepted as a transition period, during university education; this has the characteristics of an environment that brings out anxiety and stress (İnanç vd., 2004). People encounter so many different stress factors arising from theirselves, their social environments or their families and this effects their education lives. As a result of this affection, students behave particularly to the conditions they are in and they have different attitudes for coping with stress. In the study, the factors causing stress in education life and students’ ways in coping with stress according to their families’ features are tried to find out. As data logger, “The Attitudes of Coping with Stress Inventory” has been used. Statements in the scale evaluates 6 dimensions (active planning, inclining in religion, external help, escape-abstraction (biochemical), acceptancecognitive and rebuild, escape-abstraction (sensual-action) ) related to coping with stress. The statements in question are scaled with 5 point likert scale. In the scale, it is like the following: Never=0, Seldom=2, Sometimes=3, Very Often=4, and Always=5. The universe of the study consists of totally 2220 students who attend to Gazi University, Commerce and Tourism Education Faculty in the 2008-2009 academic year. Sample diameter consists of 509 students. Among the most stressful situations of students contributing to the study in their education lives, future anxiety (35,4%) ranks number one, and after that, it has been confirmed that economic problems (20,6%) and examination and assessment and evaluation system (14,3%) comes respectively. In addition, in the study, giving percentage and frequency calculations related to family features, whether there is a significant statistical difference between the dimensions that present the attitudes of students in coping with stress and family features is analysed through up-to-date statistical programmes (Analysis of Variance Test). In respect of family structures, in attitudes of coping with stress of students that have contributed to the study, it has been confirmed that, in the dimension of Inclining in Religion, the difference between the answer averages of the students having patriarchal extended family – broken family and patriarchal extended family – other family structure is statistically significant (p<0,05). In respect of family attitudes, in attitudes of coping with stress of students that have contributed to the study, it has been confirmed that, in the dimension of Active Planning, the difference between the answer averages of the students having an authorative-protective family attitude and the students having a democratic-protective family attitude, in the dimension of Inclining in Religion and External Help, is statistically significant (p<0,05). In respect of sibling number, in attitudes of coping with stress of students that have contributed to the study, it has been confirmed that, in the dimension of Inclining in Religion, the difference between the answer averages of the students who have 7 or 7+ siblings and who have no sibling is statistically significant (p<0,05). In respect of land distribution of students they live in that have contributed to the study in attitudes of coping with stress, it has been confirmed that, in the dimension of Escape-Abstraction (Biochemical), the difference between the answer averages of the students who live with their parents-at dormitory and at dormitory-at another home with their friends is statistically significant (p<0,05). In the end of the study, it has been concluded that students have different attitudes in coping with stress in respect of their family features (family structure, family attitude, sibling number and the place they live in). These results show that family features are important factors in attitudes of coping with stress. Since family is important in students’ attitudes in coping with stress, family features and families’ having a positive attitude towards students will effect students’ stress level and may increase the success level of students in their education lives.


Anahtar Kelimeler

Öğrenci, stres, stres yaratan faktörler, stresle başaçıkma tutumları, Student, stres, stress factors, overcome the stress


Selçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi

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Kara, D., (2009). Eğitim-Öğretim Yaşantısında Stres Yaratan Faktörler ve Aile Özelliklerine Göre Öğrencilerin Stresle Başaçıkma Davranışlarının İncelenmesi. Selçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 22, 255-263.