Bilgi Toplumunda Yeni Bir Liderlik Yaklaşımı Olarak Transformasyonel Liderlik ve Kamu Çalışanlarının Transformasyonel Liderlik Algısı

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Selçuk Üniversitesi

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Sanayi toplumundan bilgi toplumuna geçiş süreci toplumların kültürlerinde, yönetim tarzlarında ve liderlik anlayışlarında önemli değişimler meydana getirmiştir. Artık sadece emir veren değil, aynı zamanda yaratıcı, yönlendirici, sürükleyici ve etkileyici bir yönetim anlayışının gerekliliği neredeyse herkes tarafından kabul gören bir paradigma durumuna gelmiştir. Günümüz ekonomisi ve toplumunda, sanayi devrimindeki mühendis özellikli liderlerin yerini insan ilişkilerinde başarılı olan ve örgütteki insan kaynaklarını en iyi şekilde kullanabilen liderlerin aldığı görülmektedir. Bu çalışmanın temel amacı da bilgi toplumu ile birlikte ortaya çıkan liderlik anlayışının kurumlarda uygulama alanı bulup bulamadıklarını araştırmaktır. Sürekli değişim ve yeniliğin yaşandığı bu çağda değişimin öncüsü olarak kabul edilen transformasyonel liderlik yaklaşımı konusunda kamu çalışanlarının nasıl bir algıya sahip olduklarını açıklamak araştırmanın amaçları içerisindedir.
The transition from the industrial society to the information society brought about a dramatic cultural change and transformed management styles and the conception of leadership. The need for a new approach to leadership that is not primarily characterized by giving orders but rather requires being creative, directive, persuasive and impressive became a widely accepted paradigm. Today in both social and economic milieus, managers who are capable of effectively utilizing of human resources in their organizations replaced the managers of the industrial society who were characterized by an engineering-oriented perspective. It is almost impossible to find in the literature on leadership a definition of leadership unanimously agreed on. It is therefore not an easy task to propose a clear and precise definition of leadership. This is because leadership is a universal phenomenon that has various human and social components. Leadership is not a one-dimensional concept. Every definition of leadership explains a different aspect of the concept and sheds light on it from different angles (Karkın, 2004: 44). No term has been used as randomly and diversely as leadership. Leadership in different contexts may be referred to as a personal trait, a positional attribute or a behavioral pattern. The fact that leadership involves both qualitative and evaluative components plays an important role in the difficulty of establishing a precise definition for the term (Katz ve Kahn, 1971: 371). It is in this sense that a solitary model of leadership that depends on one single person no longer responds to what is required by the information society we live in. The model of leadership needed today is one that permeates through all aspects of life on all levels. Old approaches to leadership were thus substituted by new approaches that are more conducive to such an expansion in scope (Iraz, 2003: 944). In today's ever-changing world, which is characterized by a rapid and continuous globalization, multiculturalism and decentralization, the qualities that are essential to foreseeing the future constitute the key skills of a leader in the information age (James, 1997). Transformational leadership is one of the new concepts in the literature on leadership. It became particularly prominent starting from the eighties (Thite, 1999: 253). The wind of change created by postmodern management techniques, globalization and heightened levels of competition played an important role in the development of transformational leadership (Bolat and Seymen, 2003: 63). Transformational leadership behaviors presentely represent the most active/effective form of leadership (Rubin et al., 2005: 845). According to the theory of transformational leadership, which was first put forward by Burns and subsequently developed by Bass, what matters most is the present and the future of the organization rather than its past (Ergeneli et al., 2007: 705). In the model developed by Bass, transformational leadership is considered to be especially effective in the circumstances that are characterized by uncertainty and stress (Nemanich ve Keller, 2007: 50). Transformational leaders provide the employees with a vision. These leaders assign their associates additional missions to encourage them in participating in the creation of the vision and make drastic changes in the organizational culture by boosting their associates' self-confidence and convincing them that they can outdo their actual performances and capacities. Transformational leaders are oriented towards leading their organizations with multifarious methods, cultures and visions. Constant change and reform are what define them (Eren, 2001: 483). In summary, leadership in the information society fits better with transformational leadership approach. Transformational leadership involves assuming initiative and orchestrating others' efforts at changing the organization. Transformational leaders motivate their followers to do more than what they actually can and set challenging goals behind which their associates unite for an easier implementation of the required transformation. The world today witnesses a transition from a transactional leadership that focused on finding solutions and responding to the problems of industrial societies to a transformational leadership that brings together the leaders and their followers around the goal of collaboratively identifying problems and developing alternative solutions to them (Gül, 2003: 772). The main aim of this study is to investigate the extent to which today's organizations implement the transformational leadership approach that the emergence of information societies brought about. This study also seeks to evaluate the perceptions of employees in governmental organizations about the transformational leadership approach in the context of today's everchanging and developing world. In the light of these goals, an analysis of the leaders in the governmental organizations was performed by asking the employees about the extent to which they think the leaders in their organizations possess transformational leadership skills. For the fieldwork, a questionnaire comprising closed-ended questions was prepared. The first part of the questionnaire consisted of questions concerning general demographic information, while the second part focused on leadership traits. All questions were answered on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from “Always” to “Never”; “Very Often”, “Sometimes” and “Rarely” in between. The universe of this study is the employees that work in governmental organizations in downtown Konya. The questionnaire forms were distributed and collected through the local office of Ministry of Finance, Public Health Dentistry Clinic and the local branch of Ziraat Bankası in Konya. A total of 140 properly completed forms were assessed. SPSS 11.0 was used to analyze the collected data. In addition to frequency distribution and descriptive statistical analysis, an “Independent Two-Sample T-Test” and Anova test were conducted. In the analysis of the three governmental organizations, the data were also tested to check whether there was a statistically significant difference between the employees' perceptions of leadership across organizations. The effect of gender on the perception of leadership was also studied. However, the results of these analyses are not included in the present study as neither of the variables indicated a statistically significant difference. Several studies were previously conducted in a variety of fields to quantify and measure the traits that define transformational leadership, all yielding different results. Some studies attempted at identifying components that distinguish transformational leadership from other approaches. These components could be succinctly listed as follows (See Bolat and Seymen, 2003; Şahin, 2009; Koçak, 2006; Zel, 1997; Tengilimoğlu, 2005): establishing a common vision, being innovative and creative, possessing persuasive and effective communication skills, being capable of motivating associates, supporting change and innovation at all times, encouraging associates for change and innovation, being eager to take reasonable risks with the future of organization, reinforcing self-improvement, adopting a flexible and democratic management style, being self-confident and trustworthy, encouraging teamwork, and being competent at solving personal and organizational conflicts. While some of the earlier studies could identify transformational leadership in the organizations they sought to analyze, others could not. This study was not able to identify in the examined institutions the components of transformational leadership discussed in the theoretical framework section of the present study. The principles of management in governmental organizations do not accord with the transformational leadership approach. As Şahin (2005) stressed, the leadership approach prevalent in governmental organizations in Turkey is characterized by a centralized structure, authoritarian management, a lack of scientific interest in the new trends in leadership, favoritism towards relatives and acquaintances in the workplace, resistance to change, absence of strategic planning and development, reluctance about delegation of power, avoiding responsibility, fashioning careers without taking into account procedural reviews, employee confidentiality or specialization, attaching great importance to status symbols, a lack of effective hierarchical communication, a rewarding system primarily based on individual success, fast assessment and promotion and high-level managers who are occupied with routine tasks. These qualities that define the leadership approach in governmental organizations in Turkey are in stark contrast with what transformational leadership approach requires.


Anahtar Kelimeler

Liderlik, Transformasyonel Liderlik, Bilgi Toplumu, Kamu Çalışanları, Leadership, Transformational Leadership, Information Society, Public Employees


Selçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi

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Gül, H., Şahin, K., (2011). Bilgi Toplumunda Yeni Bir Liderlik Yaklaşımı Olarak Transformasyonel Liderlik ve Kamu Çalışanlarının Transformasyonel Liderlik Algısı. Selçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 25, 237-249.