İki Kriz Arasında Yönetim: Yeni Kamu İşletmeciliği

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Selçuk Üniversitesi

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Refah Devleti ekseninde şekillenen Weberyen bürokrasi anlayışı 1980’li yıllardan itibaren ne-liberal politikaların da katkısıyla dönüşmeye ve değişmeye başlamıştır. Bu değişimin asıl yansıması Yeni Kamu İşletmeciliği yaklaşımının yönetimde uygulanmaya başlamasıdır. Yen kamu işletmeciliği ile birlikte, planlı ekonomi ve merkeziyetçi yönetimden vazgeçilerek, serbest piyasa düşüncesi ve âdem-i merkeziyetçi bir yönetim anlayışı yerleştirilmeye çalışılmıştır. Devletin bu yapısındaki değişim ve dönüşüm çabaları, 2008 sonrası dönemde, ortaya çıkan mali krizle birlikte sekteye uğramıştır. Bu minvalden hareketle, çalışmada, yeni kamu işletmeciliğinin tarihsel arka planı, ortaya çıkışı, gelişimi ve unsurları ele alınmaktadır. Bununla birlikte, yeni kamu işletmeciliğinin sonuçları ve yeni kamu işletmeciliğinin sorun alanları ve eleştiriler irdelenmektedir. Bu kapsam çerçevesinde hazırlanan çalışmanın temel amacı, yeni kamu işletmeciliğinin sonuçlarının ele alınıp, beklenilen ve istenilen sonuçların alınıp alınmadığının tespiti ve buna yönelik görüş ve eleştirilerin değerlendirilmesidir.
It is generally accepted that, years between 1870 and 1914 were golden years of liberal practices; likewise, planned economy and centralization experienced heyday between 1945 and 1975. Thanks to the impact of welfare state approach, bureaucratic administration has carried on activities in a wide range within framework of planned development. Criticism appeared in the agenda regarding lower performance related to expanding public institutions following the oil shock. In addition, the existence of large scaled and inflexible public institutions that are close to the influence of environment and innovations. Those institution, perform on the basis of noncompetition and process rather output an efficiency. What is more, along with the increasing cost of public services and performance problem in expanding institutions, scarcity of financial resource was begun to emerge; and, in time it was perceived as the main outcome of the traditional administrative ills; and, this couldn’t be remedied through traditional administrative methods. It is impossible to attain goals only by cosmetic measures through Weberian mechanisms. So the planning, implementation and motivation processes were started to be scrutinized. First results of diagnostic studies related to the problems of bureaucratic administration system revealed that the problem stemmed from planning, which was founded upon insufficient knowledge. For the efficient solutions the capacities of planning processes and structures of planning units were to be enhanced. However, no successful results were obtained through efficient planning, hence, the causes of the problem were searched in different elements of administration, and implementation process became the focal point. By taking account of “Implementation Deficit”, insufficiency of executive agencies was emphasized. In order to overcome the implementation deficit, it was aimed to increase the institutional capacity. On the other hand, further studies showed that in addition to the “implementation deficit”, the impact of target groups’ low level motivation to participate administration could have been a factor of problem; and “motivation deficit” came to the fore. “Motivation deficit” means that the target group (citizens), as the service receiver, is not eager enough to put into practice the government’s implementation targets. As long as individuals do not participate or contribute to the administrative and political processes willingly, implementations cannot be oriented to the desired directions. It is suggested that methods like briefing, incentive, and persuasions should be installed to make social groups a part of this process. However, more deeply-rooted reforms are necessary to solve the administrative problems. As the ungovernability appeared as the stem of the problem, the necessity of replacing bureaucratic administration with new public management mechanisms came into prominence. New public management emphasized the importance of output and gave priority to customer-citizens preferences. So day by day management techniques became pervasive to enhance competitiveness and increase performance. The most important point of new public management is to reduce the rise the public resources and to limit the numbers of administrative service areas by activating “cutback management”. Together with new public management, private and public sectors converged, and the belief that performance problem in public administration can be solved by using competitive and output-oriented management style, so and private sector’s management techniques became more and more dominant. New public management has been criticized after 1990s especially due to its democratic weaknesses. In the early 2000s, as tangible side effects of new public management were begun to be observed, the studies covering the general results of new public management implementations came to be visible. As a result of studies, the following items, like creating performance ranks, providing financial source through service purchase, and successful use of technologies were accepted as accomplishment of new public management, and they are continued to be applied. On the other hand, subjects like “distinction between service provider and purchaser developing semi-public institutions, strenghting competition by comparison, establishment of market-like intuitions, outsourcing, deregulation, performance related pay and build operate transfer based on private sector finance” were defined new public management’s partial or complete failures. The theoretical rules and policies were put into the practices on the basis of new public management became a subject of discussion in academic circles. Debates related to new public management were focused on the difficulty of system formation costs, construction of single purpose institutions on the basis of devolution, the increasing complexity of administration as a side effect of enriching variety of institution through deregulation and subsidiarity, privatization, contract system, motivation of personnel; and especially regarded public interest and legitimacy of new public management. The practices with respect to citizen as customer give birth to the problem of legitimacy and low level administrative accountability was perceived as the outcome “New Public Management” under valuation of democratic principles what’s more all including “Welfare State Policies” were terminated and “social exclusion” arose as the concrete product of new approach. In sum, new public management, overemphasized economic aspect administration while disregarding democratic aspects, which in midterm will create a fertile domain for the rise of “governance” approach which gave priority to democratic and cultural aspects as well as economic aspect. In the early 70’s there were dissents about bureaucratic administration yet observable outcomes appeared after the 1974 “oil crisis”. Likewise following the 2008 “financial crisis” initial indicators of turnaround from new public management obviously observed. This study tries to reveal that, there are reversals from New Public Management’s and a move toward regulatory policies and governance emphasizing citizenship and legitimacy.


Anahtar Kelimeler

Refah Devleti, Weberyen Bürokrasi, Yeni Kamu İşletmeciliği, Yeni Kamu İşletmeciliğinin Sonuçları, Welfare State, Weberian Bureaucracy, New Public Management, The Concrete Results of New Public Management


Selçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi

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Tuncer, A., Usta, S., (2013). İki Kriz Arasında Yönetim: Yeni Kamu İşletmeciliği. Selçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 30, 181-195.