Besin Rehberleri: Beslenme Eğitiminde Görsel Bir Araç

Küçük Resim



Dergi Başlığı

Dergi ISSN

Cilt Başlığı


Selçuk Üniversitesi

Erişim Hakkı



Sağlığın korunması ve geliştirmesi, beslenme ile ilişkili hastalıkların önlenmesi amacıyla bilimsel temelli beslenme bilgilerinin topluma iletilmesinde besine dayalı beslenme rehberleri ve besin rehberi görselleri kullanılmaktadır. Yeterli ve dengeli besin tüketimi ve sağlıklı besin seçimine ilişkin önerilerin ülkelere özel görsellerle anlatıldığı besin rehberlerinden müdahale çalışmalarında anahtar eğitim araçları olarak yararlanılmaktadır. Dünya Sağlık Örgütü ve Gıda Tarım Örgütü besine dayalı beslenme rehberlerini ve besin rehberi görsellerinin geliştirilmesine yönelik çalışmaları desteklemekte, beslenme politikalarının önemli bir parçası olarak kabul etmektedir. Besin kaynakları, beslenme alışkanlıkları, kültürel özellikler, besin temini ve beslenme ve sağlık sorunlarındaki farklılıklar ülkelerin kendilerine özgü besin rehberi geliştirmesini gerekli kılmıştır. Besin rehberi görseli olarak Türkiye’de dört yapraklı yonca, Amerika’da besin rehberi piramidi, Japonya’da besin rehberi topacı, Çin’de besin Pagodası, Tayland’da beslenme bayrağı, Macaristan’da besin evi, Fransa’da merdiven, Danimarka’da pusula, Almanya’da üç boyutlu piramit kullanılmaktadır. Belirli aralıklarla güncelleştirilmesi gereken besin rehberleri konusunda toplumda farkındalık oluşturulması ve yaygınlaştırılmasında ilgili kurum, kuruluş ve disiplinlere önemli görevler düşmektedir. Bu derleme makalede, besin rehberlerinin betimlenerek, amaç, özellik, geliştirilme ve yaygınlaştırma boyutunun incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır.
This review article is an attempt to examine the objectives, properties, development process and dissemination of food guides. To remain healthy and to prevent diseases, diet and healthy lifestyle are regarded to be the fundamental components. While malnutrition-related health problems resulting from protein-energy malnutrition, inadequate intake of vitamin and minerals are still remain to be the most important nutrition problems in some parts of the world, the spread of non-contagious but chronic diseases such as obesity, type II diabetes and hypertension is increasing rapidly all over the world. The call for duty by World Health Organization and Food Agriculture Organization to governments about Food Based Dietary Guidelines so that societies in general and individuals can be educated about adequate and balanced nutrition and improve their food pattern and make healthy food choices has played a significant role in development of Food Based Dietary Guidelines and food guide. Although families and societies are being taught about food and nutrition since the beginning of humanity, it is considered that formal nutrition education was introduced with the publication of food guides prepared by governments based on the findings of nutrition science. A food guide is the pictorial illustration of the amount and type of food items to be consumed so that community can understand easily. A great many food guides were developed in the 20th century to explain foods and new suggestions for nutrition and support adequate and balanced nutrition. Grouping of food items and their illustration in pyramid is significant in the development process of food guides. In the mid of 1950’s, a new food guide was released by United States Department of Agriculture nutrition specialists, which became widely known as the “Basic Four” recommended a minimum number of foods from each of four food groups: milk, meat, fruits and vegetables, and grain products. United States Department of Agriculture published a Food Guide Pyramid which depicts a hierarchical dietary pattern to help people apply the Guidelines to their own diets in 1992. The pyramid recommends daily food serving from the grain, vegetable, and fruit groups, with fewer serving from the milk and meat groups, and even fewer from foods high in fat and sugar. In the symbolic expression of food guides a variety of visuals such as pictures, graphics, posters and diagrams are used. The main aim in the development of guides is to improve healthy nutrition by providing people guidelines to choose healthy food and to take all food at adequate and balanced amounts for growth and for the prevention of nutrition related health problems. However, food guides also serves to other ends by being practical guide for nutrition education programs, by helping consumers understand the essentials of nutrition and contributing the development of healthy nutrition and meal planning. For food guides to reach these objectives, they are to be based on scientific nutrition knowledge, their qualitative and quantitative messages are to be easily understood, and they are to be country-specific, culturally acceptable, variety of foods, proportioned and to allow for nutritional needs and eating habits and to include recommended daily food types and amount. Furthermore, they are to make optimum nutrition suggestions and be based on the results of nutrition and health research results. For cultural acceptability, the symbols of the food guide are to be chosen by the individuals who represent the community the guide addresses to. Individuals who work in this process are to make their choices among the graphics drawn by national or local graphic artists by using cultural elements and by asking the following questions: “which one of these graphics make you think of your country?” and “In which one of these graphics would you like daily food groups to be presented?”. In the development of food guides, some complex issues such as to what extent and which criteria they are to meet emerge. These criteria include: the extend food guides reflect food availability and eating habits, and serve as a strategic means for nutrition education, and the extent they are understood and accepted by the society and reflect sustainable food consumption. In recent years, the number of food guides has been increasing but the basic aim and rationale behind them is not completely understood by the society as intended by their developers. It is known that there are problems related with the understanding of quantitative (the portion of foods) and qualitative (food groups, food diversity) information in food guides. The essential in food guides are recommended to be updated every five years so that latest findings in nutrition science and food and nutrition policies tally with. When food guides all over the world are examined, it is seen that differences in food intake, sources and nutrition situations, habits and requirements of societies make it necessary to develop country-specific food guides. Although the shape, food grouping and the recommendations included in formally accepted food guides of different countries vary, their common target is to disseminate scientific knowledge about food and eating habits to larger masses by converting them into basic concepts. Countries develop or update the food guides suitable for their societies based on the results of the studies they carry out to determine food availability, eating condition and eating standards. Although various graphics such as circles, tables and dishes are used as the food guide symbols, pyramid is a popular means of illustration in food guides since the early 1990. In order to deliver messages to society about healthy nutrition, four-leaf clover is used in Turkey, healthy food dish is used in the UK, threedimensional food pyramid is used in Germany, food guide Pagoda is used in China, rainbow is used in Canada, food flag in Thailand, and Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top is used in Japan. To increase the efficiency of education studies, food guides are to be developed for gender, age groups and special conditions. In many countries, the development and dissemination of food guides are handled within the scope of nutrition policies. In the development of food guides brochures, posters, leaflets, slights, advertisements, course books, food packages, cooking books, toys, specially designed computer games, means of press and mass media are used. Schools, public education centers, public health centers, sport halls, institution which provide catering services, restaurants, dormitories and school cafeterias, inner city transportation vehicles, religion centers are the most important places for the dissemination of food guides. Health professionals, especially dieticians and nutritionists, teachers, lecturers have important roles to play for the delivery of messages to the society. As a result, food guides which provide guidance to society and individuals about healthy nutrition, optimal food choice, meal planning are also means of education in nutrition education activities. Establishment of interdisciplinary cooperation in the development of food guides is crucial for the solution of the difficulties met in the process and for the accomplishment of the objectives. All professionals who work for the development of a healthy nutrition and lifestyle in the society are to make studies to raise awareness about food guides. For a successful dissemination, public and privates institutions, education and food sector are to cooperate.


Anahtar Kelimeler

Besin Rehberleri, Beslenme Eğitimi, Beslenme, Food Guides, Nutrition Education, Nutrition


Selçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi

WoS Q Değeri

Scopus Q Değeri





Aktaş, N., (2011). Besin Rehberleri: Beslenme Eğitiminde Görsel Bir Araç. Selçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 25, 11-16.